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         Radiocarbon Dating:     more books (100)
  1. Radiocarbon Dating (Interpreting the Past Series) by Sheridan Bowman, 1990-04-04
  2. Radiocarbon Dating
  3. Radiocarbon Dating by Willard F. Libby, 1969
  4. Radiocarbon Dating: An Archaeological Perspective by Royal Ervin Taylor, 1987-07
  5. The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating: Archaeology, Text and Science by Tom Higham, 2005-12-31
  6. Radiocarbon Dating Literature: The First 21 Years: 1947-1968 by Author Unknown, 1988-02-11
  7. Radiocarbon dating (Handbooks for archaeologists) by W. G Mook, 1985
  8. Radiocarbon Dating at the Illinois State Geological Survey by S. M. Kim, 1969-01-01
  9. Radiocarbon dating and the word of God by Elizabeth Bowman, 1957
  10. Radiocarbon Dating and Italian Prehistory (BSR Archaeological Reports)
  11. Radiocarbon Dating New Zealand Prehistory Using Marine Shell (Bar International) by Matthew Schmidt, 2000-12-31
  12. Relic, Icon or Hoax?: Carbon Dating the Turin Shroud by Harry E Gove, 1996-01-01
  13. Radiocarbon and Archaeology: Fourth International Symposium, St Catherine's College, Oxford (9-14th April, 2002) (Oxford University School of Archaeology Monograph) by Tom Higham, Clare Owen, et all 2004-12-31
  14. Chronometric Dating in Archeology (Advances in Archaeological and Museum Science)

1. Radiocarbon Dating - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials
Radiocarbon dating
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation search Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. Raw, i.e. uncalibrated, radiocarbon ages are usually reported in radiocarbon years Before Present " (BP), "Present" being defined as AD 1950. Such raw ages can be calibrated to give calendar dates. The technique of radiocarbon dating was discovered by Willard Libby and his colleagues in 1949 during his tenure as a professor at the University of Chicago . Libby estimated that the steady state radioactivity concentration of exchangeable carbon-14 would be about 14 disintegrations per minute (dpm) per gram. In 1960, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for this work. One of the frequent uses of the technique is to date organic remains from archaeological sites. Plants fix atmospheric carbon during photosynthesis, so the level of C14 in living plants and animals equals the level of C14 in the atmosphere.

2. Radiocarbon WEB-info
Extensive information concerning the radiocarbon dating method from Tom Higham, Radiocarbon Laboratory, University of Waikato, New Zealand.
Welcome to radiocarbon WEB-info. Radiocarbon dating is the technique upon which chronologies of the late Pleistocene and Holocene have been built. This resource is designed to provide online information concerning the radiocarbon dating method. We hope it will be of occasional use to radiocarbon users and interested students alike. INDEX Introduction Measurement Applications WWW Links ... Email LAST MODIFIED 16 May 2002

3. Radiocarbon Dating
radiocarbon dating relies on a simple natural phenomenon. As the Earth s upper atmosphere is bombarded by cosmic radiation, atmospheric nitrogen is broken
Chronological Methods 8 - Radiocarbon Dating Radiocarbon, or Carbon-14, dating is probably one of the most widely used and best known absolute dating methods. It was developed by J. R. Arnold and W. F. Libby in 1949, and has become an indispensable part of the archaeologist's tool kit since. Its development revolutionized archaeology by providing a means of dating deposits independent of artifacts and local stratigraphic sequences. This allowed for the establishment of world-wide chronologies.
Where does C -14 Come From? Radiocarbon dating relies on a simple natural phenomenon. As the Earth's upper atmosphere is bombarded by cosmic radiation, atmospheric nitrogen is broken down into an unstable isotope of carbon - carbon 14 (C-14). Bombardment Reactions The unstable isotope is brought to Earth by atmospheric activity, such as storms, and becomes fixed in the biosphere. Because it reacts identically to C-12 and C-13, C-14 becomes attached to complex organic molecules through photosynthesis in plants and becomes part of their molecular makeup. Animals eating those plants in turn absorb Carbon-14 as well as the stable isotopes. This process of ingesting C-14 continues as long as the plant or animal remains alive. Diffusion Ingestion
C-14 Decay Profile The C-14 within an organism is continually decaying into stable carbon isotopes, but since the organism is absorbing more C-14 during its life, the ratio of C-14 to C-12 remains about the same as the ratio in the atmosphere. When the organism dies, the ratio of C-14 within its carcass begins to gradually decrease. The rate of decrease is 1/2 the quantity at death every 5,730 years. That is the half-life of C-14. The animation provides an example of how this logarithmic decay occurs. Click on the "Show Movie" button below to view this animation.

4. Waikato Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory
A national laboratory for radiocarbon dating.

5. Radiocarbon Introduction -- Page 1 Of 12
The radiocarbon dating method was developed in the 1940 s by Willard F. Libby and a team of scientists at the University of Chicago.
Radiocarbon Dating
Page 1 of 12 The radiocarbon dating method was developed in the 1940's by Willard F. Libby and a team of scientists at the University of Chicago. It subsequently evolved into the most powerful method of dating late Pleistocene and Holocene artifacts and geologic events up to about 50,000 years in age. The radiocarbon method is applied in many different scientific fields, including archeology, geology, oceanography, hydrology, atmospheric science, and paleoclimatology. For his leadership, Libby received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960. Study the picture and answer these questions The atomic mass number (the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom) for N-14 and C-14 is the same. How many protons does N-14 have and how many does C-14 have? 14 of each C-14 forms from the interaction of Cosmic rays with N-14 by and C-14 reverts back to N-14 by beta decay and neutron capture electron loss and electron capture neutron capture and beta decay proton capture both ways no way to know

6. NOVA Online | Mystery Of The First Americans | The Dating Game
So what s the story behind radiocarbon dating? It s not a love story, to be sure. Rather, it s a way to determine the age of organic remains such as bone,
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How do scientists date skulls such as Kennewick Man's? Bone up on the topic below. The Dating Game
by Rick Groleau
So what's the story behind radiocarbon dating? It's not a love story, to be sure. Rather, it's a way to determine the age of organic remains such as bone, teeth, and seeds by finding out how much carbon-14 is left in the remains.
Check it out for yourself. At the very least you'll find out what it's like to date a 9,000-year-old skeleton such as Kennewick Man's.
Does Race Exist?

7. The UnMuseum - Radiocarbon Dating
Though archaeologists could not directly use radiocarbon dating on objects such as coins, they could often find organic material (like charcoal from a fire)
The Museum of UnNatural Mystery pop up description layer HOME

UFO Mysteries


@import url(; UnMuseum Search A Bristlecone Pine high in the mountains of California.
Radiocarbon Dating
Until the middle of the twentieth century archaeologists had a real problem. If they found a bit of pottery, an old coin, or another object while digging up a site, just how old was it? How could they tell if the object had been dropped on the ground thirty years ago or thirty centuries ago? In general, archaeologists knew that the farther they had to dig down to find an object, the older it probably was and that objects found at the same level, or stratum, were close in age. That was helpful when comparing the relative ages of two items, but how could they get the actual age? And how could they compare the ages of items found at sites fifty miles apart? If a society had written records the archaeologists could compare the history against the type of objects they were finding in the ground. A coin bearing the likeness of Augustus Caesar certainly couldn't have minted before Caesar started his reign. Likewise an Egyptian piece of pottery with a design depicting horse and chariot couldn't have been made before the horse was introduced to Egypt.

8. Dating Exhibit
While the impact of radiocarbon dating has been most profound in archaeological research and particularly in prehistoric studies, extremely significant
Index Radio-carbon dating is a method of obtaining age estimates on organic materials. It has been used to date samples as old as 50,000 years. The method was developed immediately following World War II by Willard F. Libby and coworkers, and has provided age determinations in archaeology, geology, geophysics and other branches of science. Radiocarbon determinations can be obtained on wood; charcoal; marine and fresh-water shell; bone and antler; peat and organic-bearing sediments, carbonate deposits such as tufa, caliche, and marl; and dissolved carbon dioxide and carbonates in ocean, lake and ground-water sources. Each sample type has specific problems associated with its use for dating purposes, including contamination and special environmental effects. While the impact of radiocarbon dating has been most profound in archaeological research and particularly in prehistoric studies, extremely significant contributions have also been made in hydrology and oceanography. In addition, in the 1950s the testing of thermonuclear weapons injected large amounts of artificial radiocarbon ("Radiocarbon Bomb") into the atmosphere, permitting it to be used as a geochemical tracer. To discover how long an organism has been dead (to determine how much C14 is left in the organism and therefore how old it is), we count the number of beta radiations given off per minute per gram of material. Modern C14 emits about 15 beta radiations per minute per gram of material, but C14 that is 5730 years old will only emit half that amount, (the half-life of C14) per minute. So if a sample taken from an organism emits 7.5 radiations per minute in a gram of material, then the organism must be 5730 years old. The accuracy of radiocoarbon dating was tested on objects with dates that were already known through historical records such as parts of the dead sea scrolls and some wood from an Egyptian tomb. Based on the results of the Carbon 14 test the analysis showed that C14 agreed very closely with the historical information.

This method of scientific dating is used for samples which were once alive (eg in bone, charcoal, leather). All of these contain carbon, a proportion of
Radiocarbon Dating
This method of scientific dating is used for samples which were once alive (eg in bone, charcoal, leather). All of these contain carbon, a proportion of which is radioactive 14C, an isotope that is continuously being formed in the upper atmosphere. As living organisms take up radiocarbon along with other carbon atoms, the ratio between the two forms remains constant. However when they die the radiocarbon decays and is not replaced. Since it decays at a known constant rate, the decreasing concentration of 14C can be measured and the date when the material died estimated. The radiocarbon in a sample may be counted in two different ways: either by Liquid Scintillation Counting or by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Unfortunately the amount of radiocarbon in the atmosphere has varied over time, and so the radiocarbon ages produced by the measurement process must be converted into actual calendar years by calibration Return To: Methods

10. What About Carbon Dating?
That is why radiocarbon dating cannot give millions of years. In fact, if a sample contains 14C, it is good evidence that it is not millions of years old.
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What about carbon dating?
by Don Batten (editor), Ken Ham Jonathan Sarfati , and Carl Wieland First published in The Revised and Expanded Answers Book
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People who ask about carbon-14 ( C) dating usually want to know about the radiometric Christians, by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously. He said

11. Radiocarbon
Detailed information about the method of radiocarbon dating, radiocarbon dating is based on the presence of the an equilibrium ratio of R(0) = 14C/12C
Radiocarbon Dating
Detailed information
Detailed information about the method of radiocarbon dating, the active laboratories and the literature is available on the Radiocarbon website Equilibrium ratio
Radiocarbon dating is based on the presence of the an equilibrium ratio of R(0) = C/ C in the carbon cycle. Organisms take up carbon during their life and so obtain the equilibrium value from the environment. During the growth the carbon and its ratio becomes fixed in cells of plants, animals and humans. After the death of the organism the exchange with the environment stops and also the uptake of C. Because of the decay of C, the C/ C ratio decreases according to R(t)=R(0) exp(-t/t ), where t is the half life. So, the ratio R(t) is a measure for the age of the material Reservoir age
The equilibrium ratio is not everywhere the same on earth. This causes apparent age differences, known as reservoir ages. In a marine environment, the average reservoir age is 400 years, because of the dissolution of old carbonates from sediment. Such reservoir ages can also be present in lakes, rivers and other carbonates. Other complications exist, which are connected with the possibility to select the correct chemical fraction without contamination (see material). Radiocarbon age
The time past since death is derived from the measured ratio R(t) with t = - 8033 ln [R(t)/R(0)]. The uncertainty

12. Beta Analytic - World's Largest Radiocarbon Dating Service; AMS, Mass Spectromet
Commercial radiocarbon dating laboratory in Miami, Florida, US. Detailed description of methods and services.
Trusted world-wide by over active 6000 researchers, universities, institutions, and government agencies. Analyzing over 12,000 samples each year for researchers worldwide Over 230,000 analyses performed since 1979 Our Priorities Accurate Results Fast Delivery of results Caring for our Clients Accuracy - First and Foremost We understand your reputation depends on us. We also undstand the trust you place upon us. Rapid delivery times reflect the most efficient means of providing you with results while upholding research standards of analytical quality. We maintain an extensive written Quality Assurance program that is audited each year by the United States Geological Survey and Department of Energy. We are the only professional radiocarbon dating laboratory that is "QA Qualified" for work at sensitive USGS and DOE sites and we participate in all recognized International Radiocarbon Intercalibration Studies, such as IAEA, TIRI, FIRI and VIRI. Operating with a Full-Time Professional Staff Beta Analytic is a dedicated radiocarbon dating laboratory. It's sole mission since 1979 is to provide academic and industrial researchers with high accuracy radiocarbon dating results within a promised, rapid delivery time.

13. Radiocarbon Dating Of The Shroud Of Turin
Even for the first investigation, there was a possibility of using radiocarbon dating to determine the age of the linen from which the shroud was woven.
Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin
P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C.R. Bronk, E. T. Hall,
R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese
Reprinted from Nature , Vol. 337, No. 6208, pp. 611-615, 16th February, 1989 Reprinted by permission.
- Department of Geosciences,
- Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
- Research Laboratory for Archaeology and History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QJ, UK
- Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964, USA
- Research Laboratory, British Museum, London WC1B 3DG, UK
Very small samples from the Shroud of Turin have been dated by accelerator mass spectrometry in laboratories at Arizona, Oxford and Zurich. As Controls, three samples whose ages had been determined independently were also dated. The results provide conclusive evidence that the linen of the Shroud of Turin is mediaeval. The Shroud of Turin , which many people believe was used to wrap Christ's body, bears detailed front and back images of a man who appears to have suffered whipping and crucifixion. It was first displayed at Lirey in France in the 1350s and subsequently passed into the hands of the Dukes of Savoy. After many journeys the shroud was finally brought to Turin in 1578 where, in 1694, it was placed in the royal chapel of Turin Cathedral in a specially designed shrine.

14. BBC - H2g2 - Radiocarbon Dating
radiocarbon dating is probably the most important scientific method used by archaeologists to date objects. It is also an indispensable tool to researchers
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Edited Guide Entry SEARCH h2g2 Advanced Search New visitors: Returning members: BBC Homepage The Guide to Life The Universe and Everything 3. Everything Historical Events 3. Everything ... Physics Created: 25th October 2001 Radiocarbon Dating Contact Us Like this page? Send it to a friend! Radiocarbon dating is probably the most important scientific method used by archaeologists to date objects. It is also an indispensable tool to researchers in other fields such as geology, geophysics and environmental science. Radiocarbon Dating Carbon usually exists as C atoms. Radiocarbon is the unstable isotope C. It is produced by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere, and quickly diffuses through the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, dissolves in the oceans and enters all living matter through photosynthesis and the food chain. As C is unstable it will eventually decay by emitting an electron or beta particle. It reaches an equilibrium concentration in all living matter and gives it a small natural radioactivity. The principle behind radiocarbon dating is that when a plant or animal dies, there is no more exchange of carbon with the atmosphere. As the

15. Radiocarbon Dating By Dr. Elisabetta Boaretto
radiocarbon dating determines the concentration of 14C relative to 12C in the material analyzed, and from this result the 14C age in year BP (Before
Radiocarbon Dating
Breaking News Older News Internet News Archive ...
By Dr. Elisabetta Boaretto
Department of Environmental Science
Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory RADIOCARBON DATING Radiocarbon dating determines the concentration of C relative to C in the material analyzed, and from this result the C age in year BP (Before Present) is calculated and calibrated to historical years. Of the two items here considered, Jehoash tablet and James Ossuary, only the Jehoash tablet was analyzed for C by the Beta Analytic Laboratory (USA). Jehoash Tablet Sample collection The tablet of Jehoash was brought to the Israel Museum for identification and to recover material that could be submitted for radiocarbon dating. The Director of the Israel Museum Chemistry Laboratory for Restoration (SIMIA), Dr. David Bigelajzen, scraped from the letters part of the patina. He found that this patina was very soft and easy to remove. The amount recovered from the letters was considered too small for the radiocarbon determination and more patina was scraped from the side and from the back of the tablet. No attempt was made to keep separated the two different patinas. Dating material from the tablet The best available material for dating, represented by the patina inside the letters, is a mixture of pure clay mixed with chalk and some carbonized material (see Prof. Yuval Goren’s report).

16. NSF-Arizona AMS Facility :: Education :: Principle Of Radiocarbon Dating
Ever since the first use of radiocarbon dating done by Libby, the method of measuring the radiocarbon has been through different phrases from
IGERT program in Archeological Science Principles of AMS Radiocarbon dating Theory ... Publication
Production of C In a modern sample, around one carbon nucleus in a trillion contains 2 extra neutrons, giving a mass of 14. This "carbon-14" is radioactive and decays with a half-life of 5730 years. One carbon nucleus in a hundred has a mass of 13 which is a stable nucleus. For historical reasons, uncalibrate radiocarbon measurements are often referred to a half-life of 5,568 years but this discrepancy is corrected during calibration.
Diagram of production of carbon-14 in the upper atmosphere
by reaction of neutrons with nitrogen, and of the subsequent
incorporation of carbon-14 into the biosphere. When neutrons from cosmic radiation are captured by nitrogen nuclei in the earth's atmosphere, the long-lived radioisotope C is produced. The C nuclei so produced combine with oxygen to form CO , and become part of the carbon cycle. All living things achieve an equilibrium concentration of C, and when they die, their

17. Radiocarbon WebInfo - Dating
radiocarbon dating is one of the most widely used scientific dating methods in archaeology and environmental science. It can be applied to most organic
14C WebInfo
Radiocarbon Dating
Radiocarbon dating is one of the most widely used scientific dating methods in archaeology and environmental science. It can be applied to most organic materials and spans dates from a few hundred years ago right back to about 50,000 years ago - about when modern humans were first entering Europe.
What can be dated?
For radiocarbon dating to be possible, the material must once have been part of a living organism. This means that things like stone, metal and pottery cannot usually be directly dated by this means unless there is some organic material embedded or left as a residue. As explained below, the radiocarbon date tells us when the organism was alive (not when the material was used). This fact should always be remembered when using radiocarbon dates. The dating process is always designed to try to extract the carbon from a sample which is most representative of the original organism. In general it is always better to date a properly identified single entity (such as a cereal grain or an identified bone) rather than a mixture of unidentified organic remains.

18. Radiocarbon Dating Method
radiocarbon dating uses the amount of Carbon 14 (C14) available in living creatures as a measuring stick.
zGCID=" test0" zGCID=" test0 test6" zJs=10 zJs=11 zJs=12 zJs=13 zc(5,'jsc',zJs,9999999,'') You are here: About Education Archaeology Archaeology 101 ... R Terms Radiocarbon Dating Method Archaeology Education Archaeology Essentials ... Submit to Digg Related Glossary Entries Luminescence Dating Archaeomagnetic Dating Radiocarbon Dating on About The Radiocarbon Revolution Carbon Dating Dating Techniques in Archaeology Radiocarbon Dating on the Internet Carbon Dating (T. Higham) Basics of Radiocarbon Dating (D Keenan) Most Popular The Sphinx, Old Kingdom, Egypt Letter of Intent Research Paper Topics Terracotta Army ... Megalithic Sites
"Radiocarbon Dating Method"
From K. Kris Hirst
Your Guide to Archaeology
FREE Newsletter. Sign Up Now! Definition: Radiocarbon dating uses the amount of Carbon 14 (C14) available in living creatures as a measuring stick. All living things maintain a content of carbon 14 in equilibrium with that available in the atmosphere, right up to the moment of death. When an organism dies, the amount of C14 available within it begins to decay at a half life rate of 5730 years; i.e., it takes 5730 years for 1/2 of the C14 available in the organism to decay.
Comparing the amount of C14 in a dead organism to available levels in the atmosphere, produces an estimate of when that organism died. So, for example, if a tree was used as a support for a structure, the date that tree stopped living (i.e., when it was cut down) can be used to date the building's construction date.

19. Dating Methods I, Department Of Geography, University Of Otago, New Zealand
The importance of dating methods in Quaternary studies Types of dating methods 2. radiocarbon dating Principles Sources of error Reference
Exams Resources Home ... Field Trip
Lecture 8: Dating Methods I
1. Introduction
The importance of dating methods in Quaternary studies
Types of dating methods
2. Radiocarbon dating
Sources of error
Lowe, J.J. and Walker, M.J.C. (1997) Reconstructing Quaternary Environments. Chapter 5: Dating Methods.
Why examine dating methods?
We need chronologically accurate reconstruction's to:
Determine the age of events Determine the timing of events Use the data in Global Circulation Model Radiocarbon Dating As for all isotopic methods the isotope concerned must have several attributes:
  • The isotope must occur in measurable quantities and be able to be distinguished from other isotopes
  • The radioactive decay half life must be appropriate to the period of time being dated
  • There must be a connection between the event being dated and the start of the decay process There are three carbon isotopes: C C C Radiocarbon dating (aka C, C14, carbon-14 dating) is based on the
  • 20. CD011: Carbon Dating.
    radiocarbon dating has some known limitations. Any measurement that exceeds these limitations will probably be invalid. In particular, radiocarbon dating
    Index to Creationist Claims Previous Claim: CD010 List of Claims Next Claim: CD011.1
    Claim CD011:
    Carbon-14 dating gives unreliable results.
    Lee, Robert E., 1981. Radiocarbon: Ages in error. Anthropological Journal of Canada 19(3): 9-29. Reprinted in Creation Research Society Quarterly
  • Any tool will give bad results when misused. Radiocarbon dating has some known limitations. Any measurement that exceeds these limitations will probably be invalid. In particular, radiocarbon dating works to find ages as old as 50,000 years but not much older. Using it to date older items will give bad results. Samples can be contaminated with younger or older carbon, again invalidating the results. Because of excess C released into the atmosphere from the Industrial Revolution and excess C produced by atmospheric nuclear testing during the 1950s, materials less than 150 years old cannot be dated with radiocarbon (Faure 1998, 294).
    In their claims of errors, creationists do not consider misuse of the technique. It is not uncommon for them to misuse radiocarbon dating by attempting to date samples that are millions of years old (for example, Triassic "wood" ) or that have been treated with organic substances. In such cases, the errors belong to the creationists, not the carbon-14 dating method.
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