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         Blindness:     more books (102)
  1. Steady Hedy: A Journey through Blindness & Guide Dog School by Carolyn Wing Greenlee, 2010-07-22
  2. Steady Hedy: A Journey through Blindness & Guide Dog School by Carolyn Wing Greenlee, 2010-07-22
  3. Escaping Plato's Cave: How America's Blindness to the Rest of the World Threatens Our Survival by Mort Rosenblum, 2007-10-02
  4. The 'Heathen in His Blindness...': Asia, the West and the Dynamic of Religion (Studies in the History of Religions) by S. N. Balagangadhara, 1994-01-01
  5. Data on Blindness and Visual Impairment in the U.S.: A Resource Manual on Social Demographic Characteristics, Education, Employment and Income, and by Corinne Kirchner, Robert A. Scott, 1988-06
  6. Self-Esteem and Adjusting With Blindness: The Process of Responding to Life's Demands by Dean W. Tuttle, Naomi R. Tuttle, 2004-07
  7. Ensayo sobre la ceguera / Blindness (MTI) (Spanish Edition) by Jose Saramago, 2009-08-17
  8. Independent Movement and Travel in Blind Children: A Promotion Model (PB) (Critical Concerns in Blindness) by Joseph Cutter, 2007-03-21
  9. The Encyclopedia of Blindness and Vision Impairment (Facts on File Library of Health and Living) by Susan Shelly, Allan Richard, M.D. Rutzen, et all 2002-08
  10. Ishihara's Tests For Colour-Blindness (Concise Edition) by Shinobu Ishihara, 1972
  11. The Truth Will Set You Free: Overcoming Emotional Blindness and Finding Your True Adult Self by Alice Miller, Andrew Jenkins, 2002-12
  12. Seeing Beyond Blindness (PB) (Critical Concerns in Blindness) by Shelley Kinash, 2006-06-19
  13. Ishihara's Tests for Colour-blindness: Concise Edition by Shinobu Ishihara, 1990
  14. A Different Way of Seeing: Youth With Blindness and Vision Impairment (Youth With Special Needs) by Patti Souder, 2007-09-15

41. MedlinePlus: Vision Impairment And Blindness
Coping; Adjustment Process (Foundation Fighting blindness); Living with Low Vision?Take These 10 Steps to Help Keep Your Independence (Prevent blindness
@import url(; Skip navigation
Other health topics: A B C D ... List of All Topics
Vision Impairment and Blindness
Contents of this page:

From the NIH



Search MEDLINE/PubMed for recent research articles on Vision Impairment and Blindness:


Low Vision
You may also be interested in these MedlinePlus related pages: Cataract Diabetic Eye Problems Eye Diseases Eye Injuries ... Eyes and Vision

42. Color Blindness Check
Color blindness is an inaccurate term for a lack of perceptual sensitivity tocertain colors. Absolute color blindness is almost unknow.
    Color Blindness W hen I was a kid in kindergarten, my parents never knew why I got low grade in identifying the color of crayons. Not until the day I was responsible for an Open Day project on color blindness in my secondary school did I noticed that I am one of the 'victim'. Though I was not blamed for the low grade then, restriction on choosing my job twenty years later frustrated me somehow. C olor blindness is an inaccurate term for a lack of perceptual sensitivity to certain colors. Absolute color blindness is almost unknow. There are three types of color receptors in our eyes, red, green and blue. We also have black and white receptors. They are more sensitive than the color receptors, that is why we have poor color perception in the dark.
    C olor blindness comes as a result of a lack of one or more of the types of color receptors. Most color perception defects are for red or green or both. About 10% of males have a color perception defect, but this is rare in females. Red-green color blindness is a result of a lack of red receptors.
    A nother form of color blindness yellow-blue is the second most common form, but it's extremely rare. It is also possible to have the color receptors missing entirely, which would result in black and white vision.

43. Motion Induced Blindness
Demonstration of Motion Induced blindness Motion Induced blindness.From Michael’s “Optical Illusions Visual Phenomena”
Motion Induced Blindness
From Michael’s
What to see On the right you see a rotating array of blue crosses and 3 yellow dots. Now fixate on the centre (watch the flashing green spot). Note that the yellow spots disappear once in a while: singly, in pairs or all three simultaneously. In reality, the 3 yellow spots are continuously present, honest! What to do You can use the slower/faster buttons to change speed. Disappearance persists down to surprisingly low speeds. [If there are no buttons on the right, please update your Flash player.] You can use the larger/smaller buttons to change size. Disappearance persists up to surprisingly large sizes. You can use the “back-col.” button to change the background colour. The yellow dots disappear into whatever colour the background has. The ‘defaults’ button at the top restores the standard settings. Comment Steady fixation favours disappearance, blinks or gaze shifts induce reappearance. All in all reminiscent of the Troxler effect, but stronger and more resistant to residual eye movements.
Source Created: 2002-Oct-12

44. No Smoking
Smoking and macular degeneration, cataracts, loss of hearing, and loss of night visioin.
This information is provided by Macular Degeneration Support at
One printed copy is permitted for personal use only.
No Smoking
By Linda Kaspari Cigarette smoking reduces levels of plasma antioxidant, a substance in the blood stream, which protects retinal cells. Smoking causes the protective layer between the retina and blood vessels to erode, resulting in poor circulation, irritation and scarring. Smoking is damaging to the blood supply. Smoking exposes the body to free radicals which causes cellular damage and can cause poor circulation of nutrients to the retina and lens. Carotenoid levels and vitamin C blood concentrations are substantially reduced. Smoking oxidizes cholesterol, causing fat to build up in the arteries. This leads to heart attack, stroke, and probably macular degeneration.
Researchers think smoking contributes to the incidence of some types of cataracts. "What makes us suspect this is the consistency of studies all over the world," says Robert Sperduto, M.D., chief, epidemiology branch of the National Eye Institute. "If there's one thing people can do to improve their general health, including the health of their eyes, it is to stop smoking," says Dr. Sperduto. Carbon monoxide from cigarette smoke creates a hypoxic effect, it is clear that hypoxia will degrade night vision. (Hypoxia is a state of oxygen deficiency in the body which is sufficient to cause an impairment of function. The inadequate oxygen transport or the inability of the tissues to use oxygen causes hypoxia.)

45. Illinois Society For The Prevention Of Blindness
Provides public resources for safety and care of eyes, along with eye disease. Includes The Visionary, a publication that explores research projects, issues and news of interest.
CAN TV Eye Care Eye Disease Eye Safety ... Donations
Web design - Voras

46. National Federation Of The Blind, Blind, Blindness, Visually Impaired
National Federation of the Blind, the leading force in the blindness field today,has 50000 members, 700 local chapters, 52 affiliates.
Speech Friendly Site Map
Search Site Jump to: Home About the NFB Aids and Appliances Blind Children Board of Directors Books By and About NFB Braille Braille Monitor Braille Readers Are Leaders Branding Guide Bulletin Board Chapter Constitution - Sample Champions of Notre Dame Coming Events Constitution of the NFB Conventions Courtesy Rules of Blindness Definition of Blindness Diabetes Action Network Directions to NFB Divisions Donate to the NFB Employment and Training Erik Weihenmayer Future Reflections Giving to the NFB Guide Dogs Imagination Fund Inaccessible Web site Alert Form Jobline Laws and Legislation Leaders of the NFB LISTSERV Information Literature Local Organizations Media Page Meet the Blind Campaign NAC-The Failure of Accreditation NFB Camp NFB NEWS NFB-NEWSLINE Online Education Program Parents of Blind Children Publications Professional Certification Questions Kids Ask Related Links Research on Braille Usage Scholarship Program Senior Blind Services and Resources Speeches and Reports State Affiliates State and Chapter Web sites Statistics About Blindness Student Divisions Support the NFB Technology To Make A Gift Voice of the Diabetic What is the NFB?

47. Blindness - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
The term blindness also applies to partial visual impairment In North Americaand most of Visual impairment includes low vision as well as blindness.
Wikimedia needs your help in the final days of its fund drive. See our fundraising page
Over US$225,000 has been donated since the drive began on 19 August. Thank you for your generosity!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Blindness Blindness can be defined physiologically as the condition of lacking visual perception . The definition as it applies to people thus legally classified is, however, more complex. "Blindness" also applies to partial visual impairment: In North America and most of Europe , legal blindness is defined as vision of 20/200 (6/60) or less in the better eye with correction. This means that a legally blind individual would have to stand 20 feet from an object to see it with the same degree of clarity as a normally sighted person could from 200 feet. In many areas, people with average acuity who nonetheless have a visual field of less than 20 degrees (the norm being 180 degrees) are also classified as being legally blind. Approximately ten percent of those deemed legally blind, by any measure, are fully sightless. The rest have some vision, from light perception alone to relatively good acuity. Those who are not legally blind, but nonetheless have serious visual impairments, possess low vision By the 10th Revision of the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death

48. Color Blindness
Identifies many conditions which can cause color problems. Includes informationon diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

Main Search Index
Definition Description Causes ... Resources
Color blindness
Color blindness is the word used to describe mild to severe difficulties with identifying various colors and shades of colors. It is a misleading term because colorblind people are not blind. Rather, they tend to confuse some colors, and a rare few may not see colors at all. Description
Normal color vision requires the use of special cells, called cones, located in the retina of the eye. There are three types of cones, termed red, blue, and green, which enable people to see a large spectrum of colors. A defect or deficiency of any of the types of cones will result in abnormal color vision. The following are three basic types of color blindness:
  • Red/green color blindness. Red/green color blindness is the most common deficiency, affecting 8% of Caucasian males and 0.5% of females. People with red/green color blindness can often distinguish red or green if they can visually compare the colors. For example, they can pick out red or green from a package of colored pencils. However, if handed a red pencil, they cannot tell what color the pencil is. Blue color blindness. Blue color blindness, which is rare, is an inability to distinguish both blue and yellow. Blue and yellow are seen as white or grey. Although as many females as males have this deficiency, it usually appears in people who have physical disorders, such as liver disease or diabetes mellitus. However, it is not uncommon for young boys to have blue/green confusion that becomes less pronounced in adulthood.

49. What's Color Blindness?
You might think being colorblind means you can t see any colors. But that s nottrue. Find out more in this article for kids.
KidsHealth Kids Kids' Talk
If your clothes don't match, someone might have teased you about being color-blind. But some people really are color-blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any color at all, like a black and white movie. It means that they have trouble seeing the difference between certain colors. (Check out the image on the right to see how well you see colors.) Being color-blind can make it tricky to match your shirt and pants, but it's not a serious problem. People who are color-blind can do normal stuff, even drive. Most color-blind people can't tell the difference between red or green, but they can learn to respond to the way the traffic signal lights up. The red light is generally on top and green is on the bottom. Cones and Color
To understand what causes color blindness, you need to know about the cones in your eyes . Cones in your eyes? Yes, but they're very small. These cones are cells on your retina, an area the size of a postage stamp that's at the back of your eye. You have "red," "blue," and "green" cones, which are sensitive to those colors and combinations of them. You need all three types to see colors properly. When your cones don't work properly, or you don't have the right combination, your brain doesn't get the right message about which colors you're seeing. To someone who's color-blind, a green leaf might look tan or gray.

50. GUUUI - Navigation Blindness
GUUUI the interaction designer s coffee break, with daily postings and quarterlyarticles about interaction design.
Navigation blindness
How to deal with the fact that people tend to ignore navigation tools
Most web development projects put a lot of effort into the design of navigation tools. But fact is that people tend to ignore these tools. They are fixated on getting what they came for and simply click on links or hit the back button to get there. The navigation tools that have become standard on the web seem to be designed with the ambition to give users the option to go anywhere from everywhere. Menus with links to all the main sections are discretely placed to the left or at the top throughout the site and fold out and drop down to reveal where you are and where you can go. In this way, every page on a website becomes a major traffic junction, where road signs point you in all directions. But people have specific destinations in mind. Above all, they need clear signage along the way to their destinations.
Users click on links or hit the back button
Two of the world's most well-respected usability experts Jakob Nielsen and Mark Hurst agree on at least one area: Users tend to ignore navigation and don't care where they are in a site structure. They are highly goal-driven and follow a very simple click-link-or-hit-back-button strategy when navigating websites.

51. How The Edgar Cayce Readings Helped With Blindness
How the Edgar Cayce readings helped me overcome blindness caused by optic neuritis.
By Cathy Comora
At the age of 27, I suddenly lost the sight in my left eye due to optic neuritis. I went to three ophthalmologists including the head neuro-ophthalmologist at NYU hospital. I was offered only steroids as a treatment, which I was afraid to take because my body is extremely sensitive, and I was concerned about the side effects.
Fortunately, a family friend told my mother to get me to a chiropractor immediately. I was a member of the Edgar Cayce organization, the Association for Research and Enlightenment , and I was aware that Edgar Cayce recommended chiropractic adjustments for all sorts of ailments, and that the A.R.E. had a listing of chiropractic members. I decided that I wanted to be treated by a chiropractor who would treat me with the Cayce remedies for blindness.
I called the A.R.E. and was given the name of Dr. John Pagano (author of Healing Psoriasis ) in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. I called him immediately, and he told me to come over right away. My mother agreed to drive me to his office, although she had always been skeptical about my interest in the Cayce readings.
When we met Dr. Pagano, he told me that he had successfully treated a woman the previous year, who had been blind in both eyes for several months due to optic neuritis. Dr. Pagano told me that he could make no promises, but he would treat me the same way he had treated her, according to the Edgar Cayce readings.

52. Computerized Simulation Of Colour Blindness
What do colourblind people see? Interactive Java applets to demonstrate colour appearance.
What do colour-blind people see?

53. - Study: Vitamins Combat Age-related Blindness - Nov. 11, 2003
International Edition MEMBER SERVICES The Web Home Page World U.S. Weather ... Autos SERVICES Video E-mail Newsletters Your E-mail Alerts RSS ... Contact Us SEARCH Web
Study: Vitamins combat age-related blindness
Story Tools HEALTH LIBRARY Health Library YOUR E-MAIL ALERTS Macular degeneration Blindness Vitamins or Create your own Manage alerts What is this? CHICAGO, Illinois (Reuters) Hundreds of thousands of people could benefit from vitamin supplements shown to help prevent macular degeneration, a condition that is the leading cause of blindness from age 65, a study reported. In 2001, researchers announced they had found a reduced risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration and vision loss for test subjects who had been given high-dose antioxidant supplements vitamins C, E and beta carotene as well as zinc or zinc oxide. In Monday's report, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore tried to estimate how many people in the United States alone would benefit from increasing supplement use. They concluded there are 8 million Americans at least 55 years old thought to be at high risk for the problem. If all the people at risk took the supplements used in the earlier study, more than 300,000 of them would avoid advanced macular degeneration and any associated vision loss during the next five years, the study said.

54. Pacific Assistance Dogs Society
PADS is a nonprofit organization that trains assistance dogs for people with disabilities other than blindness, e.g. mobility impaired, agility impaired, and hearing impaired.
Summer 2005 Newsletter Crossword Puzzle Challenge has been won.
Check the

answer here.

Past Issues: Spring 2005 Newsletter
December 2004
Fall/Winter Newsletter
online (PDF)

10th Anniversary "Run, Walk and Roll for Independence"
This year's 10th Anniversary pledge event was a huge success! We had a great turnout and would like to thank everyone who participated! Pictures from the event will be posted and available soon. PADS would like to thank all of the sponsors and vendors that came out to the event. Your contribution and goodies were a hit! PADS would also like to thank all the volunteers for their amazing hard work and effort! This event would not have been possible without you!
SUMMER PUPPY CLASS SCHEDULE AVAILABLE HERE Click Here Donate to PADS Online through! Click on the button below and donate via credit card or debit card.
PADS is a charitable, non-profit organization located in Burnaby, B.C. and serving people in B.C., Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba.

55. A-Z To Deafblindness
blindness Resources on the Net. Deafness Resources on the Net. Disabilities Resourceson the Net. Equipment, and Suppliers for Blind and Deaf People.
A-Z to Deafblindness
Welcome to A-Z to Deafblindness
Please feel free to come in and browse around.
Information About Deafblindness. The Deafblind Manual Alphabet. [D] A Person with a Red and White Cane is a deafblind person. Some other Resources on the net for Blind or Deaf people. You can also read A-Z to Deafblindness in French, German, Italian, Portuguese or Spanish.
Go to AltaVista's Translator, and enter
I would like to take this opportunity to welcome you to A-Z to Deafblindness, and to thank you for visiting my modest and humble little Web Page. So come on in and make yourself at home, you will be made very welcome. My name is James Gallagher and I am deafblind myself. This site is here to try and offer some help to Blind or deaf people, and especially deafblind people, and those who provide specialised services for those who are deafblind. A-Z to Deafblindness is also here, to make people more aware about deafblindness.

56. Conditioned Ethical Blindness, By Peter Singer & Lori Gruen
Excerpted from Lori Gruen and Peter Singer, 'Animal Liberation A Graphic Guide' (London, 1987).
Conditioned Ethical Blindness Peter Singer Excerpted from Animal Liberation: a Graphic Guide , London, 1987, pp. 78-80 How can otherwise decent citizens do these things? How can they become so insensitive to what they are doing? Don Barnes, who spent sixteen years as a biomedical scientist experimenting on animals, and now heads the Washington, DC office of the National Anti-Vivisection Society, calls the state in which he used to do his work 'conditioned ethical blindness'. From his early years growing up on the farm, and continuing into his time as a Ph. D. student, Barnes accepted the idea that non-human animals exist to serve human purposes. As a student of psychology, he was also taught a whole new vocabulary which served to distance the experimenter from the animal. The monkeys on which he worked became 'research subjects'; the electric shocks he gave them were called 'negative reinforcement' and their vain efforts to escape were classified as 'avoidance behaviour'. As Barnes says: 'During my sixteen years in the laboratory the morality and ethics of using laboratory animals were never broached in either formal or informal meetings prior to my raising the issues during the waning days of my tenure as a vivisector'. Don Barnes is not the only one to have escaped his conditioning. In 1977 the magazine

57. The Blindness Resources Page
The blindness Resources Page. blindnessRelated Resources on the Web andBeyond, This is an excellent web site, and full of good Information.
Blindness Resources on the Net.
  • A Day's Journey, A web page investigating adoption and home schooling of special needs children with especial emphasis on resources available to parents and educators of blind children. This is a remarkable page its full of information and resources. Debbie and her husband have created a wonderful web page. It tells the story of her nine special children. Each one with their own uniqueness and special qualities. parents who have a child with a disability will find this site extremely useful. Ability's , A Web Site that gives access to users with a disability or limited skills, An indexed system of 100's of pages giving information and providing 1000's of links, A very good site indeed, This is the Text only display version, UK. Action for Blind People , UK. Access.Adobe.Com, is a tool that allows blind and visually impaired users to read any document in Adobe PDF format. The tool converts PDF documents into simple HTML or ASCII text which can then be read by a number of common screen reading programs that synthesize the HTML as audible speech. Association for the Blind of Western Australia.

58. Prevent Blindness Massachusetts
Focused on saving sight through public education, community based vision screening programs, and research. Includes information on events, services, and donations.
Join our mailing list
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to exciting events.
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Visit our national
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Let's go now

Prevent Blindness Massachusetts (PBM) is the only nonprofit
volunteer driven organization in the state dedicated solely to saving
sight through public education, community based vision screening programs, and research. PBM Helps We vision screen more than 4,000 pre-school pre-school and kindergarten age children per year. Our vision screening protocol is more comprehensive than the one used in the Massachusetts school systems. Your support makes all the difference! Please Support Our Cause
  • Make a donation A fast/effective way to help Become a Volunteer Help organize a screening or event Attend an event Unique outings, local and national celebrities
  • 59. Djs_lab Demos
    Inattentional blindness Examples. Sustained inattentional blindness Gorillas inour midst sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events.
    Demos and Stimuli All videos on this site are available solely so that individuals can view examples from our experiments.
    Many of the videos on this website are available on a DVD presentation tool distributed by VisCog Productions, Inc. This Surprising Studies of Visual Awareness DVD is the only form in which any of these videos are distributed, and it may be used for teaching, presentations, workshops, etc. To learn more (or to order), visit
    To view these videos, you will need a recent web browser with javascript active and a recent version of Apple's QuickTime software (you can download it here ). Some of the videos are are contained in Java Applets. To view those videos, you will need to have a Java player installed on your computer and you will need to have Java active in your browser.
    Change Blindness Examples A person change video
    This video was used as a stimulus by Levin and Simons (1997). In this video, one actor changes into another actor across a cut. In general, naive observers notice such changes about 30 percent of the time. For this particular video, the noticing rate is somewhat lower. Note that although the two actors are globally similar in appearance, they are wearing noticeably different clothing.
    1.1 MB quicktime movie

    60. EMJA: Mitchell Et Al, "Smoking Is A Major Cause Of Blindness"
    Editorial in a health journal considers the scientific and policy merits of a new pack warning.
    Home Issues Email alerts Classifieds ... Search
    Editorial "Smoking is a major cause of blindness" A new cigarette pack warning? MJA
    Health warnings on Australian tobacco products have been mandated through federal legislation since 1973, being updated in 1987 and 1995. Issue of the current warnings followed a detailed study examining the likely impact of prototypes, particularly on youth. The warnings address general health ( "Smoking kills" ), lung cancer, heart disease, addiction, low infant birthweight, and harm to others through passive smoking. The adoption of health warnings was vigorously opposed by the tobacco industry, whose internal research indicated that many smokers disliked their prominence and more detailed content. Internationally, the track record of the tobacco industry has been to oppose more "hard-hitting", specific warnings in favour of blander, more general warnings such as "Smoking reduces your fitness" . We propose a new "hard-hitting" cigarette pack warning. Recent population-based cross-sectional data from four countries including Australia

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