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         Switzerland History:     more books (100)
  1. Protomycetaceae of Switzerland: Life history and biology = Die schweizerischen Protomycetaceen mit besonderer Berucksichtigung ihrer Entwicklungsgeschichte ... (Beitrage zur Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz) by Gunther von Buren, 1987
  2. Protomycetaceae of Switzerland, life history and biology. by G. von. BUREN, 1987
  4. Infringing Neutrality: The RAF in Switzerland 1940-45 (Revealing History) by Roger Anthoine, 2005-08-01
  5. Switzerland: Land People Economy by Aubrey Diem, 1994-08
  6. Switzerland: Confoederatio Helvetica (American Geographical Society Around the World Program Series) by Charles A. Heatwole, 1995-08
  7. Annals of Switzerland, by Julia Maria Colton, 1897
  8. The Historians' History of the World; Volume XVII Switzerland, Russia
  9. THE UNITED STATES AND SWITZERLAND in the Nineteenth Century by Heinz K Meier, 1963
  10. The disputations of Baden, 1526 and Berne, 1528: Neutralizing the early Church (Studies in reformed theology and history) by Irena Dorota Backus, 1993
  11. Geneva Zurich Basel: History, Culture, & National Identity by Nicolas Bouvier, Gordon A. Craig, et all 1994-06
  12. Pastoral care east of Eden: the consistory of Geneva, 1568-82 (1).: An article from: Church History by Scott M. Manetsch, 2006-06-01
  13. Hesitant steps: acceptance of the Gregorian calendar in eighteenth-century Geneva.: An article from: Church History by Jennifer Powell McNutt, 2006-09-01
  14. The Day We Bombed Switzerland: Flying With the Us Eighth Army Air Force in World War II (Airlife Classics) by Jackson W. Granholm, 2002-07

81. French Studies Web: History
This page provides history resources for France Belgium switzerland switzerland. Documents, Data Files, Primary Literature Swiss primary historical
French Studies Web: History
This page provides history resources for:



France Belgium
  • Documents, Data Files, Primary Literature
    Belgian primary historical documents on EuroDocs
    Documents are either transcriptions, translations, or facsimile copies of originals.
  • Reference Works, Gateways, Tertiary Literature
    Clio site d'histoire sociale
    A collection of reviews, bibliographies, statistics, articles, documents, links, maps, secondary works, and research projects concerning the history of contemporary Europe and of the former colonial world. Immigration is a significant topic.

82. WHKMLA : Reformation In Switzerland
Brief history beginning with prereformation, continuing with the reformation in Zurich with Zwingli and then the reformation in Geneva with Calvin.
Reformation in the
Holy Roman Empire Reformation
in France
Reformation in Switzerland
A.) Switzerland before the Reformation

The Swiss Confederation had been founded in 1291 and grew by a combination of taking in new members into their confederation, by military conquest and by associating cantons. In 1517, when Martin Luther, by nailing his 95 theses began the protestant reformation, the Swiss Confederation covered an area in which 4 languages were spoken, the largest ethnical group speaking German. Ecclesiastically, Switzerland lacked an identity of her own; the country was divided among the Archdioceses of Mainz (Diocesis of Konstanz), Besancon (Diocesis of Basel), Vienne (Diocesis of Geneva), Tarantaise (Diocesis of Sion), Milan (Diocesis of Novara ?), Aquileja (Diocesis of Como).
B.) The First Reformation and the Treaty of Kappel
Switzerland, just as other regions in Central Europe, had been affected by the corruption of the church. Martin Luther's publications were (re)printed in Basel; they spread quickly throughout German-speaking Switzerland, most notably his German bible translation. While Luther's principle to compare reality within the church organization and her practices with scripture was widely accepted, this was not necessarily the fact with the new order Luther wanted to establish.
The immediate effect of the spread of the reformist publications was that simple priests questioned their role. Some felt compelled by scripture to take on a civil occupation, some gave up their priesthood altogether. Reformist theses began to enter sermons. Another effect was that laymen began to interpret the bible on their own, now they could read it. Church authority showed signs of breakdown, as men began to break the fast, a number of priests married, nuns left convents (unpunished).

83. Switzerland Country Guide - History And Government - World Travel Guide Provided
World Travel Guide switzerland - Overview, Visa and Passport requirements, vacation advice, holiday guide, international travel, travel agent,
OAS_sitepage = URL + '/Europe/Switzerland/HistoryandGovernment'; document.write('Research Switzerland hotels at TripAdvisor'); Contact Addresses

General Information

History and Government
History: The history of Switzerland has followed a broadly different course from that of its European neighbours, mainly because no ruler since the 14th century was able to claim more than a theoretical suzerainty over the small, well-organised and prosperous group of cantons that comprise it. In the period between 1315 and 1388, they inflicted a series of crushing defeats on the armies of the Dukes of Austria, resulting in several other cantons joining the original three in the Swiss Confederation. Their location left them well placed to interfere in the interminable power struggles of the period, and their influence was backed up by the formidable reputation of their army – probably the most powerful in Europe at the end of the 15th century. The Reformation led to a division in Swiss society between the followers of the reformer Zwingli (later, Calvin) and the Catholics. The bitter controversy considerably reduced Swiss influence in Europe and the Confederation was lucky to survive a series of defeats. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was one of the results of the Peace of Westphalia (1648) that concluded the Thirty Years’ War, in which Switzerland had suffered badly. In the following 100 years, little progress was made towards a formal union of the cantons and the religious controversy rumbled on; the dominance of the Protestants was not established until after the Second Villmergen War in 1712.

84. WHKMLA : History Of Switzerland, ToC
switzerland s flag, from FOTW Timeline of Swiss history, from; from BBC News Primary Documents on the history of switzerland from Eurodocs
Germany Italy First posted on July 7th 2002, last revised on February 5th 2005
Era of the French Revolution : Helvetic Republic, 1798-1803
Era of Napoleon Bonaparte : Switzerland 1803-1815
Early Restauration : Switzerland 1815-1830
Late Restauration : Switzerland 1830-1848
Reshaping the Constitution : Switzerland 1848-1874
Economic Progress : Switzerland 1874-1891
Belle Epoque : Switzerland 1891-1914
World War I : Switzerland 1914-1918
Golden Twenties : Switzerland 1918-1930
Great Depression : Switzerland 1930-1939 World War II : Switzerland 1939-1945 Historical Atlas, Switzerland Page Wars of Switzerland click here for the History of the Princebishopric of Basel click here for the History of the Principality of Neuchatel click here EXTERNAL FILES CIA World Factbook : Switzerland BBC Country Profile : Switzerland Virtual Library History : Switzerland Article Switzerland, from Catholic Encyclopedia ; Articles Switzerland Switzerland and Literature , from Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 edition Swiss History, from

85. ASSOCIATION DES BANQUIERS PRIVES SUISSES - Banque Privee, Place Financière Suis
Explains the difference between a private banker and private bank , and has a history of the Association. Also covers the Geneva Private Bankers Association. In English, French and German.
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Libre circulation des personnes : les vrais enjeux
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86. WHKMLA : History Of Switzerland, 1803-1815
Helvetian Republic, 17981803, history of Italy, switzerland 1815-1830 REFERENCE, Charles Dandliker, history of switzerland, The history of Nations
Helvetian Republic, 1798-1803 Switzerland 1815-1830 Russia 1789-1813 Britain : Foreign Policy
Switzerland, 1803-1815

In the ACT OF MEDIATION 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte reestablished a federal constitution in Switzerland; shortly afterward the name was changed from Helvetic Republic back to Swiss Confederation. Napoleon himself used the title as Mediator of the Swiss Republic; yet the restoration of federalism in Switzerland actually had meant a drastic change in French Switzerland policy - from massive interference and determined support of centralism to leaving Switzerland much to herself for the sake of peace. France only insisted in the Franco-Swiss alliance to be continued (confirmed in 1803) and in Switzerland providing Napoleon with 4 regiments of soldiers for his many campaigns. Yet France did supervise the Swiss Press and monitor the Swiss politicians/political bodies.
Territorially, the Swiss Confederation of 1803 differed from that of 1797, as Mulhouse/Muelhausen, Geneva and the Princebishopric of Basel (a part of which had been member of the Swiss Federation) had been annexed by France, as the Valtellino, Bormio and Chiavenna had been annexed by the Cisalpine, now Italian Republic, and as the Valais/Wallis had been separated from Switzerland in 1802 (it was annexed by France in 1810. On the other hand, in 1801 the hitherto Austrian Fricktal had been annexed into the Swiss Federation.
The number of cantons rose from 13 to 19, as St. Gallen, Thurgau, Graubuenden (Grisons), Ticino, Aargau and the Vaud were elevated to cantons with equal rights. The capital function rotated annually among the following six cities : Fribourg/Freiburg, Bern, Soleure, Basel, Zuerich and Luzern. Privileges of the nobility as well as the status of subject territories remained abolished. While the old cantons retained old-fashioned constitutions (thus reestablishing the guilds, preserving the status of patricians), the new cantons drafted libereal constitutions. Suffrage was limited to those who qualified by paying a certain amount of taxes.

87. Switzerland A Village History By David Birmingham
switzerland A Village history is an account of an Alpine village that illuminates the broader history of switzerland and its rural, local underpinnings.
Browse by Subject... Africa Agriculture Anthropology Antiques Architecture Art Asia Biography Business Cookbooks Ecology/Botany/Nature Education History Journalism Latin America Literature Medicine Music Native American Studies Ohioana Philosophy Poetry Political Science Sociology Travel Victorian Studies West. America Women
256 pp.,
ISBN: 0-8040-1065-x
Related Interest: History European History Search our site

A Village History David Birmingham Author Information
Switzerland: A Village History
is an account of an Alpine village that illuminates the broader history of Switzerland and its rural, local underpinnings. It begins with the colonization of the Alps by Romanized Celtic peoples who came from the plain to clear the wilderness, establish a tiny monastic house, and create a dairy economy that became famous for its cheeses. Over ten centuries the village, like the rest of Switzerland, went through the traumas of religious reformation and political revolution. A single currency, a unified postal service, and eventually an integrated army brought improved stability and prosperity to the union of two dozen small republics. Switzerland: A Village History replaces the mythology and patriotic propaganda that too often have passed for Swiss history with a rigorous, insightful, and charming account of the daily life, small-scale rivalries, and local loyalties that actually make up Swiss history

88. SIU - Hotels Hotel ACS - Leysin - Switzerland - History
Engelberg switzerland ACS Leysin - switzerland. history Guest Rooms The American College of switzerland moved into the former Grand Hotel de Leysin
Hotel Europe
Engelberg - Switzerland
Hotel Bellevue
Engelberg - Switzerland
Leysin - Switzerland
Guest Rooms



... Hotel Bellevue ACS Hotel Schloss Hornberg Prices Inquire Seminar ... Downloads

89. SIU - Hotels Hotel Europe - Engelberg - Switzerland - History
Engelberg switzerland Hotel Bellevue Engelberg - switzerland ACS Leysin - switzerland. history Guest Rooms Rooms Prices Location
Hotel Europe
Engelberg - Switzerland
Hotel Bellevue
Engelberg - Switzerland
Leysin - Switzerland
Guest Rooms



... AGB Hotel Europe Hotel Bellevue ACS Hotel Schloss Hornberg Prices ... Inquire Seminar Teambuilding Incentives/Events InteractionPark Clubreisen/SWR3 ... Downloads

90. British American Tobacco Switzerland - History Of Tobacco
history OF TOBACCO.

91. British American Tobacco Switzerland - History
We found a man in a canoe going from Santa Maria to Fernandia. He had with him?some dried leaves which are in high value among them, for a quantity of it

92. Alptransit
Constructing the longest railway tunnel in the world, through the base of the Alps between switzerland and Italy. Information and history of the current and new Gotthard tunnels.

93. ☞ Switzerland Travel, Business, Real Estate, For Sale, Jobs, Technology, H
switzerland Topic Index Classifieds1000 World Message Board for sale switzerland * travel jobs switzerland * the technology history in switzerland
Switzerland Directory
Switzerland Real Estate Listings

Switzerland Topic Index Classifieds1000 World Message Board
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94. Education And Training
Education in switzerland A Brief history and Main Features Let switzerland Surprise You Swiss Representations Swiss Clubs in the US
Education in Switzerland: A Brief History and Main Features
A Brief History
In Switzerland, as in other parts of Europe, the large abbeys were the centers of culture and education up until the late Middle Ages. As towns grew and became more important in the mid-15th century, schools primarily designed to meet the need for vocational training emerged. Craftsmen and their guilds began to take on apprentices to train in the manual trades. At this time, Switzerland's oldest university, the University of Basel, was founded in 1460 on a grant from Pope Pius II.
With the onslaught of liberalism in the 19th century, increasing value was put on popular education, and in 1850, compulsory school attendance was introduced in all cantons. Education remained the responsibility of the cantons also after the transition from the loosely-knit federation of states to the federal state of 1848. From that date on, however, the Confederation had to make sure that all cantons guaranteed a satisfactory primary school education.
Main Features of the Educational System
The federal constitution stipulates that "the right to sufficient and free primary education is guaranteed" (article 19) and that "education is a cantonal matter" (article 62, paragraph 1). Switzerland does not have a federal or national Department of Education. The Confederation has very few specific tasks as far as education is concerned, but it does have responsibility in the following areas: the provision of a sufficient level of primary education which is compulsory and free (but governed by the 26 different cantons), control of both Federal Institutes of Technology (the ETH Zürich and EPFL Lausanne), regulation of the teaching of physical education, and providing financial support to cantonal universities, scientific research, and Swiss schools abroad.

95. The History Of Switzerland
The history of switzerland. The history of switzerland. Pick a category below or scroll down to read everything The development of switzerland

96. - History
history. In preRoman times the territory now known as switzerland was inhabited by the Helvetii in the west and the Rhaetians, a people believed to have

97. SRI In Switzerland - EUROSIF - European Social Investment Forum - Promoting Sust
SRI history switzerland. Swiss banks were among the first financial institutions to include the issue of sustainability in their business policy.
European Social Investment Forum
A European non-profit membership organisation promoting the concept,
practice and development of sustainable and responsible investment. login search contact
About the Library
... Home Information on SRI in Switzerland History Key features Legislation SIF Documents Links ... Country/Sector index
SRI History: Switzerland
Swiss banks were among the first financial institutions to include the issue of sustainability in their business policy. Initially this consisted of environmental credit risk assessment.
Another incentive for sustainable finance activities emerged from traditionally strong citizen involvement in Switzerland, which led to the foundation of two alternative banks in the...
In 1984, the Freie Gemeinschaftsbank BCL was established. Based on the anthroposophic philosophy, loans are given to projects with an environmental or social background. Three years later, Alternative Bank Schweiz (ABS) set up business. Investors get lower interest rates than those offered by the traditional bank market. Credit is granted to institutions and groups with environmental or social exposure.
In 1990, Credit Suisse started its Eco Efficiency fund (now Global Sustainability Fund), followed by Bank Sarasin's OekoSar in 1994 and UBS's Eco Performance in 1997. In addition to these environment-focused funds, an ethical fund - the Prime Value - has been available since 1995.

98. Mathematicians Born In Switzerland
Click HERE to see a clickable map of Germany and Middle Europe including switzerland.
Mathematicians born in Switzerland
Mathematicians' birthplaces are given relative to modern-day boundaries. Click on the name below to go to the biography. Amsler


Jacob(II) Bernoulli

Click HERE to see a clickable map of Germany and Middle Europe including Switzerland.
Places Index
Birthplace Maps Index Countries Index
Main index
... Societies, honours, etc.
JOC/EFR/BS January 1998 The URL of this page is:

99. Yoga Between Switzerland And India : Its History And The Hermeneutics Of An Enco
It contributes to a history of Yoga in switzerland and in modern India. hermeneutics of encounter, new religions in switzerland, history of Yoga in
research project Yoga between Switzerland and India : its history and the hermeneutics of an encounter. The present project continues the work done between September 2002 and August 2004 under the direction of Prof. Dr. Maya Burger (DIHSR, University of Lausanne) and aims at a "hermeneutics of encounter" between "East and West".It specifically studies the European and the Indian developments of yoga, seen in a perspective of exchange of values and ideas between the two cultures. Thus, it looks at the transfer and the implantation of Indian concepts into contemporary religious movements, in particular in the Swiss context. It contributes to a history of Yoga in Switzerland and in modern India.
The project aims at a study of primarily textual sources. In evaluating them, we concentrate on the analysis of the following topics and concepts and their change in a situation of encounter: "yoga" as a concept comparable to "religion"; the karman-theories, the (altered) state of consciousness called samadhi; and the modes of transmission.
Our research goes to demonstrate that yoga is a subject which allows to throw new light on religion in modern India and Switzerland. Our starting hypothesis that T. Krishnamacharya is a key figure for the history of Yoga in India no less than for what yoga has become in Europe has been confirmed. This master embodies the exegetical tradition of the yoga of Patanjali and is the starting point of several types of yoga (e.g., therapeutical, ayurvedic, 'energetic', devotional or 'vedic') which have given rise to some of the best-known yoga schools in the West.

100. Eurovision Song Contest 2005 At | Your Daily Eurovision Centre | Hi
The biggest independent Eurovision Song Contest website The most visited, independent Eurovision Song Contest website, with news, background information,

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