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         Sudan History Regional:     more detail
  1. A History of the Sudan: From the Coming of Islam to the Present Day (5th Edition) by P.M. Holt, M.W. Daly, et all 2000-02-15
  2. SYRIA - Background.(Sudan's political history and economic conditions): An article from: APS Diplomat Fate of the Arabian Peninsula
  3. SUDAN - Background.(political history and economy ): An article from: APS Diplomat Fate of the Arabian Peninsula
  4. Gordon and the Sudan: Prologue to the Mahdiyya, 1877-1880.(Book Review) (book review): An article from: Canadian Journal of History by Douglas M. Peers, 2002-12-01
  5. Sudan. (Areas of Conflict).(Brief Article): An article from: Canada and the World Backgrounder
  6. Fair Exotics: Xenophobic Subjects in English Literature, 1720-1850.(Reviews of Books)(Book Review): An article from: Albion by David P. Haney, 2004-01-01
  7. The Nile: An Annotated Bibliography
  8. Egypt (Enchantment of the World. Second Series) by Ann Heinrichs, 1997-10

1. 1A1 Sudan Page @Sudan.Net
A comprehensive Sudan Website with information on The Republic of The Sudan, its People, Culture, Geography Politics, Current News, Music Clips and

2. Sudan Country Studies - Federal Research Division, Library Of
A Country Study Sudan Introduction. Chapter 1 Historical Setting. Early History Cush. Meroe Regional and Local Administration.

3. African Studies Center Sudan Page
This site provides information on Sudan history and culture, as well as shedding some light on Nubia and Nubian. The Papyrus Collection

4. Sudan On The Internet
March 25, 2002 http// FrankWilson, a History of Colonial and Missionary Linguistics in the Southern Sudan, by Dr

5. History Society And Culture Sudan Africa Regional
History Society and Culture Sudan Africa Regional now available, find more information on History.

6. Regional Africa Sudan Society And Culture History
Search Africa Society Regional Sudan and History Culture.

7. The Country People Of Sudan
regional information visit Arab Countries Sudan History Northeast Sudan, called Nubia in ancient times, was colonized by Egypt about 2000 BC

8. Sudan (07/05)
HISTORY Sudan was a collection of small, independent kingdoms and principalities from the Accords granting southern Sudan wide regional

9. Sudanese Online
Directory with comprehensive links to websites for Sudan.

10. Sudan History, People, Economy, Geography, Government
SUDAN INTRODUCTION. Chapter 1. Historical Setting. EARLY HISTORY. Cush. Meroe. Christian Nubia Regional and Local Administration

11. Mahassurvey
University of Khartoum project undertaking a regional study of the archaeology and longterm history of the Mahas region of Middle Nubia, northern sudan.
Khartoum University Rock Drawings KEDURMA Post-Meroitic ...
Fieldwork 2002

The 'Mahas Survey' is a University of Khartoum project undertaking a regional study of the archaeology and long-term history of the Mahas region of Middle Nubia, northern Sudan ( see map ). The area currently inhabited by Mahasi Nubians ( Nobiin speakers) extends north from around Tombos - Hannek (the southern end of the Nile Third Cataract) to the area of Jebel Dosha-Wawa, the traditional frontier with their Sikoot Nubian neighbours to the north. New survey work here seemed especially appropriate as most of Nubia further north had been studied during a series of archaeological surveys begun in the early 1900s with the construction of the first Aswan Dam, culminating in the international Nubian Salvage campaigns of the 1960s, in response to the construction of the Aswan High Dam. By the 1970s most of Lower Nubia had disappeared beneath the waters of Lake Nubia/Nasser behind the Aswan Dam and its inhabitants relocated. The Mahas area represents the last relatively unexplored area of Nubia north of the Third Cataract which has escaped flooding.

12. International Affairs Regional Concerns - SUDAN History
sudan history. sudan, located in northeast Africa on the Red Sea, sudan hasa long history that has been dominated in the north by Arab and Egyptian
International affairs, peace
and human security
  • Sudan

  • - Important documents

  • Cuba Korean Peninsula Palestine-Israel ... Zimbabwe
  • SUDAN - HISTORY Sudan, located in northeast Africa on the Red Sea, is the largest country in Africa. It is also one of the most violent and poverty-stricken. It has known only 10 years (1972-82) without civil war and massive population displacement since it was granted independence from Britain in 1956. The wars are rooted in northern economic, political, social, and religious domination of the non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese people. It is estimated by the UN and churches that since the war resumed in 1983, more than 2 million people have died and four to five million displaced due to war- and famine-related causes. In 2003 Islamic extremists attacked black Sudanese in the western Darfur region where thousands died and more than a million more displaced in a humanitarian disaster that continued through 2004. With the discovery of oil in the south and demands by the Khartoum government that the revenues go to the national government, war broke out again in 1983 and there has been no peace since. Decades of war have led to a large refugee population, as well as millions of landmines around the country. Children have been kidnapped and forced to serve as soldiers. Slavery is another monstrous human rights violation, which has continued for more than 300 years. North African Arabs and Arab Moors buy, sell and breed black Africans for the slave trade. The country has been ravaged by drought, famine, desertification, soil erosion, poaching of endangered animal species and excessive hunting. The oil fields of southern Sudan have been developed by international corporations but are also the cause of brutal repression of southerners who are demanding a share of the lucrative royalties.

    13. International Affairs Regional Concerns - SUDAN
    sudan; Present situation history - Important documents - Resources links sudan - DARFUR CRISIS Concern at the WCC UN Advocacy Week, NYC,
    International affairs, peace
    and human security
  • Sudan

  • - Important documents

  • Cuba Korean Peninsula Palestine-Israel ... Zimbabwe
  • REGIONAL CONCERNS - SUDAN "While the critical situation in Darfur has faded from the media spotlight, massive humanitarian response and international political pressure needs to be maintained and increased. The situation in Darfur is the worst humanitarian crisis currently in the world. It is a catastrophe of human creation... To understand how a human-made tragedy of this proportion has come about, it is necessary to understand the background of the region."
    - Advocacy update on the situation in Darfur, Western Sudan (August 2004)
    See complete text
    "The Sudan is now in the midst of an historic and exciting time. Long-awaited peace is finally emerging, and a nation that has experienced war and strife for many generations is preparing itself for reconstruction and the advent of peace... War has engulfed this country for all but a short period of times since its independence in 1956. Estimates are that 2.5 – 3 million people have died as a result of the war, and over 4 million have had to flee their homes... this conflict now finally appears to be ending."
    Assembly of the Sudan Ecumenical Forum (Limuru, Kenya, June 2004)

    14. Sudan (08/05)
    history sudan was a collection of small, independent kingdoms and principalitiesfrom US interests in sudan are counterterrorism, regional stability,
    Bureau of Public Affairs Electronic Information and Publications Office Background Notes
    Bureau of African Affairs
    August 2005
    Background Note: Sudan

    Republic of the Sudan
    Area: 2.5 million sq. km. (967,500 sq. mi.); the largest country in Africa and almost the size of continental U.S. east of the Mississippi River.
    Cities: Capital Khartoum (pop. 1.4 million). Other cities Omdurman (2.1 million), Port Sudan (pop. 450,000), Kassala, Kosti, Juba (capital of southern region).
    Land boundaries: Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, and Uganda.
    Terrain: Generally flat with mountains in east and west. Khartoum is situated at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile Rivers. The southern regions are inundated during the annual floods of the Nile River system (the Suud or swamps).
    Climate: Desert and savanna in the north and central regions and tropical in the south. People Nationality: Noun and adjective (sing. and pl.)Sudanese.

    15. Sudan Regional And Local Administration - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate
    sudan regional and Local Administration Flags, Maps, Economy, history, Climate,Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population,

    Sudan Regional and Local Administration
    Sources: The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook
      Back to Sudan Government Throne room and council house of an Azande chief, southern Sudan
      Courtesy Robert O. Collins Relations between the central government and local authorities have been a persistent problem in Sudan. Much of the present pattern of center-periphery political relationships local officials appointed by authorities in Khartoumoriginated in the early part of the century. During most of the AngloEgyptian condominium period (1899-1955), the British relied upon a system called indigenous administration to control local governments in nonurban areas. Under this system, traditional tribal and village leaders nuzara (sing., nazir umada (sing., umda The Abbud regime sought to end the dual features of this system through the 1961 Local Government Act, which introduced a provincial commissioner appointed by the central government as chairman of the provincial authority, an executive body of officials representing Khartoum. The 1961 law was not intended to be a democratic reform; instead, it allowed the central government to control local administration despite the existence of provincial councils chosen by local governmental and provincial authorities. fig. 7

    16. Sudan STATE OF INTERNAL SECURITY - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natur
    sudan STATE OF INTERNAL SECURITY Flags, Maps, Economy, history, Climate, His decision in 1981 to abolish the Southern regional Assembly and the later

    Sources: The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook
      Back to Sudan National Security The new military government immediately invoked emergency legislation banning strikes and other work stoppages as well as unauthorized political meetings. Political parties and trade unions were dissolved and their property frozen or seized. Leading members of the main political parties were arrested, as were senior members of the Sudan Bar Association and other prominent figures thought to be unfriendly to the new regime. More than 100 trade unionists were detained, while others were dismissed from the civil service, the army, and the police. Although some political prisoners had been released by early 1990, evidence of continued opposition to the military government brought harsh repressive measures. In December 1989, a prominent physician was sentenced to death (later commuted to imprisonment) for organizing a doctors' strike. Another doctor was sentenced to fifteen years' imprisonment. In March 1990, the government announced that it had crushed a coup conspiracy, arresting prominent members of the Umma Party and military officers. Less than a month later, the regime alleged that it had discovered another coup plot among the military and executed twenty-eight high-ranking officers whom it claimed were implicated.

    TABLES OF MODERN MONETARY history regional TABLES by Kurt Schuler sudan,pound sterling, 0.975, 4329.50. Swaziland, South African pound*, 1, 1
    by Kurt Schuler
    Preliminary version, May 2005
    I welcome comments from knowledgeable readers. Should you have a suggested correction, please specify the source of your information. I am most interested in information from primary sources, particularly laws and the reports of monetary authorities.
    Notes So far the tables for Africa, Asia, and Australia/Pacific are finished, though they are subject to revision. "Present" refers to 2005 in the tables of monetary authorities.
    Table. African countries that have had various types of monetary authorities Systems with competitive issue of the monetary base Free bankingCompetitive issue by banks of notes (paper money) and deposits with few special regulations. Fixed exchange rate with gold, silver, or a foreign currency. Lesotho (1902-21), Malawi (1894-1940), Mauritius (1813-17, 1817-24*, 1824-5, 1832-49), Namibia (1915-61), South Africa (1837-1920, 1920-1*), Swaziland (1897-1921), Zambia (1906-40), Zimbabwe (1892-1940). Besides these episodes, there was also limited competition in Mozambique (1919-42*). Botswana (1897) and Nigeria (sometime 1899-1912) had episodes of note issue by a single bank either too brief or not extensive enough to usefully classify as free banking. Free issueUnusual system with neither an exchange rate target nor centralized control of the monetary base.

    18. Sudan SADIQ AL MAHDI AND COALITION GOVERNMENTS - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography
    those serving in senior positions in the central and regional governments, Useful surveys include PM Holt s and MW Daly s, A history of the sudan;

  • Country Ranks
    Source: The Library of Congress Country Studies
      < BACK TO HISTORY CONTENTS In June 1986, Sadiq al Mahdi formed a coalition government with the Umma, the DUP, the NIF, and four southern parties. Unfortunately, however, Sadiq proved to be a weak leader and incapable of governing Sudan. Party factionalism, corruption, personal rivalries, scandals, and political instability characterized the Sadiq regime. After less than a year in office, Sadiq al Mahdi dismissed the government because it had failed to draft a new penal code to replace the sharia, reach an agreement with the IMF, end the civil war in the south, or devise a scheme to attract remittances from Sudanese expatriates. To retain the support of the DUP and the southern political parties, Sadiq formed another ineffective coalition government. Instead of removing the ministers who had been associated with the failures of the first coalition government, Sadiq al Mahdi retained thirteen of them, of whom eleven kept their previous portfolios. As a result, many Sudanese rejected the second coalition government as being a replica of the first. To make matters worse, Sadiq and DUP leader Mirghani signed an inadequate memorandum of understanding that fixed the new government's priorities as affirming the application of the sharia to Muslims, consolidating the Islamic banking system, and changing the national flag and national emblem. Furthermore, the memorandum directed the government to remove Nimeiri's name from all institutions and dismiss all officials appointed by Nimeiri to serve in international and regional organizations. As expected, antigovernment elements criticized the memorandum for not mentioning the civil war, famine, or the country's disintegrating social and economic conditions.
  • 19. Western And Central Sudan, 1600Ð1800 A.D. | Timeline Of Art History | The Metro
    Timeline of Art history World Map regional Map The region suffers anoverall decline in regional trade and political stability.
    Encompasses present-day Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Mauritania, Niger, and eastern Chad
    See also Central Africa Eastern Africa Guinea Coast , and Southern Africa The Moroccan invasion at the end of the sixteenth century destroys the Songhai empire and creates a period of social and political instability that provides an opportunity for the formation of other states such as . Increased contact with European merchants along the Atlantic coast draws trade away from traditional routes in the interior, and increased slave trading causes hardship among the local populations. The continuing spread of Islam throughout the region results in two waves of militant Muslim reform leading to the creation of several theocratic states.
    The Moroccan army occupies the former Songhai empire, including the great trading centers of Jenne , Timbuktu, and Gao . The sultanate installs a class of foreign rulers called the arma , who assert a tenuous control over the region. Their power is challenged from within by the increasingly dominant military, while Tuareg and non-Muslim Bamana aggressors exert steady military pressure from without. The region suffers an overall decline in regional trade and political stability. The first large-scale Bamana state The English build Fort St. James on the mouth of the River Gambia, giving it access to the Sudanic trade routes of the interior.

    20. Sudan History
    sudan. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Historical Setting EARLY history Constitutional Development regional and Local Administration THE LEGAL SYSTEM
    History of Sudan
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