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81. Fauna, Part 1
The sponges. These simplest animals do not have any distinct tissues (a tissue Commonly found cnidarians are sea anemones, which may be very colorful or
The Fauna of Japan
Lecture Outline
  • The Animal Kingdom. Examples of all of the major animal groups can be found in Japan. A nimals are multicellular organisms with no cell walls and no chlorophyll. They usually ingest other organisms for their energy and other nutrient needs. Animals are divided into several groups [phyla]. The lower groups (sponges through echinoderms) are often classified together as the invertebrates.
    • The Sponges. These simplest animals do not have any distinct tissues (a tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function). They live in water, most being marine. These include a variety of sponges other than the common commercial sponge.
    • The Cnidarians (Coelenterates). These animals have simple tissues and radial symmetry. (All the rest of the animals listed below also have tissues.) They have stinging cells that they use to kill prey and they live in water (mostly marine). They include sea anemones, coral, jellyfish, and many small organisms. Coral reefs are the skeletons secreted by such tiny organisms.
    • The Flatworms.

82. IB 104 - Lecture 3 - Sponges To Cnidaria - 8/30/04
There are thousands of species of sponges, and they can grow to be much larger The cnidarians have radial symmetry, in contrast to all other complex
IB 104 - Lecture 3 - Sponges to Cnidaria - 8/29/05 Evolutionary origins of animals Animals appeared on earth during the Ediacaran period , with all of the major phyla established by the Cambrian period The first question requires us to make the leap from single-celled eukaryotes to multicelled eukaryotes. The hypothesis most widely accepted today, although by no means proved, is that the ancestors of animals were colonies of protistans. First, there are alive today protistans that form colonies. These protistans are called choanoflagellates (collared flagellates, for their microvilli surrounding their single flagellum). Second, the choanoflagellates closely resemble cells found in one simple type of modern day animal, the sponges. To make this scenario work, we need to envision a floating hollow ball of cells that, over evolutionary time, gradually became more complex by developing different types of cells. It’Äôs worth noting that we believe plants evolved multicellularity independently of animals, hence the vast differences between plant and animal cell biology, physiology, and embryology (we’Äôre not sure about fungi). Which also partly explains why botany and zoology have long been separate subjects, and why we still have separate plant and animal biology courses. The second question, did the transition from protistan ancestors occur only once, is another way of asking whether or not all animals alive today share a relatively recent common ancestor. The two hypotheses considered most seriously today are 1. one common ancestor and 2. two common ancestors. If one is more impressed by the overall similarities of animals, even those with very simple body designs, one might be more likely to envision that the protoanimal arose only once, and we are all descendants of that animal. If one reflects more strongly on the fundamental differences between the radially symmetric animals and the bilaterally symmetric animals, one might favor the two ancestor hypothesis. Most comparative biochemical studies today support the one ancestor hypothesis (see handout).

83. List Of Species Included
Ophlitaspongia pennata, Red sponge. Suberites sp. cnidarians (11). Top of list Marine worms (25). Top of list. Amphiporus sp. White ribbon worm
Washington State University Home Intertidal Invertebrate ID Card Set
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Laminated Intertidal Invertebrate ID Card Set List of Species Included
Amphipods Anemones Arachnids ... Urchins Sponges Top of list Halichondria (2 species) Bread crumb sponge Haliclona sp. Purple sponge Myxilla sp. Bivalve encrusting sponge Ophlitaspongia pennata Red sponge Suberites sp. Cnidarians Top of list Anemones Anthopleura artemisia Moonglow anemone Anthopleura elegantissima Aggregating anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica Giant green anemone Epiactis sp. Brooding anemone Haliplanella lineata Lined anemone Metridium sp. Plumose anemone Urticina coriacea Stubby rose anemone Urticina crassicornis Christmas anemone Hydroids Obelia sp. Branching hydroid Sertularella sp. Branching hydroid Jell i es Cyanea capillata Lion's mane jelly Marine worms Top of list Amphiporus sp. White ribbon worm Arenicolidae Polychaete (segmented worm) family Glyceridae Polychaete (segmented worm) family Cerebratulus sp.

84. Lecture-7.htm
Bidder reasoned that for sponges living in still water, selection should maximize the Ctenophores (comb jellies) superficially resemble cnidarians.
Not sure? Look it up! EEB/MCB 182: Spring 2005. Lectures by W. M. Schaffer.
VII. Animal Organization. I: Lophotrochozoans.
Recommended Reading: Chapter 32.
Required Reading: Darwin's Theory of Coral Atoll Formation
Review Laboratories #4 and 5.
(Lecture Revised 02/07/05).
  • Recall the metazoan phylogeny presented in the previous lecture.

  • Figure 1. Basic sponge body plan.
  • The most primitive metazoans are sponges (phylum Porifera).
  • Manifest radial symmetry. Organized about a series of water canals. Specialized collar cells suck water in through pores. The collar cells Extract food particles from the incoming water. Excrete waste products. "Used" water exits through one or more large openings called oscula
    A remarkable study by the Joseph Bidder in 1944 reveals what E. G. Leigh later called "the perfection of sponges." Bidder reasoned that for sponges living in still water, selection should maximize the distance travelled by water exiting the osculum before it was drawn back into the sponge. Such an arrangement would maximize the degree to which the exhalent current is Is cleansed of waste products Reacquires food particles.
  • 85. AnimalPhylogeny1
    One line of evolution, leading to modern cnidarians, diverged at the Choanoflagellates were not much more closely related to sponges than to other
    Lets return to the problem of trying to understand the evolutionary origin of the Metazoa . We have looked at a variety of organisms below this level; now lets consider a top-down approach, and propose that:
    The first "real animals" were worms.
    What distinguishes worms from other animals? The lack of a rigid (usually jointed) skeleton. What is a skeleton?
    Muscles can only contract. They do not actively elongate. An external, antagonistic force is needed to stretch them out again. This antagonistic force is usually conducted by a skeleton. The primary function of a skeleton is to provide for muscle antagonism , usually between different muscles that can be independently controlled, but sometimes between muscle and elastic antagonists. Soft-bodied animals must have solved this problem, without a rigid skeleton.
    But worms share the following characteristics with other "real animals":
  • Use muscles for locomotion, by creating "waves" of muscle contraction.
    I want to focus on locomotion, and the fact that there is an enormous gap between the use of actin and myosin for locomotion by an amoeboid cell like Naegleria , and the use of actin and myosin in muscle cells of worms and other multicellular animals.
  • 86. Augsburg College: Aquaria: List Of Organisms
    symbiotic in most of the cnidarians we have, giving them their brown or beige fire worms (Eurythoe complanata); sabellid fan worms (fether duster worm
    Partial List of Live Organisms in Marine Aquaria That are Visible to the Naked Eye
    Current as of June 1999 This list is out of date - will be updated soon Cyanobacteria - prokaryotic algae
    • Oscillatoria sp - purplish red film on glass below sand line in some places
    • Brown cyanobacteria (on sand in a few spots from time to time)
    Green Macroalgae
    • Caulerpa paspaloides
    • C. sertularoides
    • C. racemosa (2 types)
    • C. racemosa var. peltata
    • C. serrulata
    • C. prolifera
    • C. brachypus
    • C. taxifolia (or mexicana? )
    • Caulerpa sp. (several additional unidentified species)
    • Codium sp.
    • Acetabularia sp.
    • Neomeris annulata
    • Dasycladus vermicularis
    • Anadyomene stellata
    • Dictyosheria cavemosa
    • Ventricaria sp.
    • Valonia sp.
    • Avrainviella
    • Cladophora
    • Chaetomorpha
    • Halimeda monile
    • H. opuntia
    • H. tuna
    • H. discoidea
    • Misc. green turf algae
    Brown Algae
    • Dictyota
    • Misc. Brown turf algae.
    Red Algae
    • Misc encrusting coralline reds - numerous species on rocks, on glass, on turtle grass, or other algae. These are pink or purple in color (white when dead)
    • Branching coralline reds
      • Neogoniolithon strictum
      • Goniolithon
    • Fleshy/bushy reds (some look brown, but are actually red algae), several species

    87. Meet The Invertebrates
    The body plan of a sponge (as seen on how sponges are built link above) How many openings to the Cnidarian s body? (Tell the two functions)
    Wonderful World of Invertebrates
    Web Quest Created by: Barbara Wagner
    Newport Beach, California URL: Suggested Grade Level:
    7-10 Grade Biological Science Topic Area: Invertebrate Taxonomy
    Try this Link for General Reference Ucmp Web Lift to Taxonomy
    -University of California, Berkeley
    Introduction: Somewhere around 9 or 10 million species of animals inhabit the earth; the
    exact number is not known and even our estimate are very rough. Animals
    range in size from no more than a few cells to organisms weighing many tons,
    such as blue whales and giant squid. Most animals inhabit the seas, with
    fewer in fresh water and even fewer on land.
    Intvertebrate Zoology
    Search the Marine Species Data Base Living things are classified in a hierarchical taxonomy. The basic levels of this hierarchy are: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species A popular mnemonic to remember the above list is "King Phillip Came Over From Germany Stoned".

    88. Mrs. Felix's Science Web Page
    Finish worm notes 115. HW Learn information in the cnidarian and sponge guides. Test 5/5/05. 5/3/05. 158, BW Make tapeworm segment (See page 156.

    Vocabulary Links Gradesheet
    Assignments If you lost your assignments or just need to see them again, here they are! This list is a cumulative summary of all the assignments we have done this year.
    BW Bellwork CW Classwork HW Homework
    BW Work quietly on su/do/ku puzzle. Use pencil.
    CW Introduction to Science 6.
    HW Enjoy!
    BW What do you think it would be like to take a trip on the space shuttle? Describe what you would expect in four sentences or more.
    CW Continue introduction. Begin work on information handout. Pass out book/ cd request form.
    HW Get form signed tonight.
    BW Read page 6 in the text. Copy the sentence that begins with "Science is often..." CW Scavenger Hunt (handout) to get to know each other. (19 points). Collect bellwork 2 and 3. (24 points). HW Bring signed form Monday. Otherwise, enjoy!!! BW Science Journal, page 4. What do you think these might be? Write the hint and your guess.

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