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61. Invertebrates
The hydrozoans and corals are colonial cnidarians with many individual polyps and feed on worms, mollusks, corals, sponges, crustaceans and even fish.
By Hugh R. Williams Of the more than one million described species of animals in the world, approximately 95% fall under the heading of invertebrates. There are more anatomical differences between jellyfish and insects than there are between insects and elephants. The invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse assemblage of animals, from single celled protozoans to insects, crustaceans and starfish. There are more than thirty major groups, or phyla, of invertebrates. For our purposes here, we will discuss the general characteristics of just a few groups common along our coast and at Gray's Reef. A companion Gray's Reef poster to this section entitled "Invertebrates of the Reef," can be obtained from Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, GA 31411. SPONGES
Sponges belong to the phylum Porifera, which means "pore bearer," and constitute the simplest of multicellular animals. They are sessile organisms, which means that they live attached to objects, and therefore are not able to move about. They have no true tissues or organs, rather various individual cells perform the life functions of the sponge. Most sponges are marine; only 150 or so freshwater species have been identified out of some 5,000 species within the group. Structurally, sponges are supported by a matrix of fibrous material and interwoven spicules (tiny spikes), usually made of calcium or silica. This matrix is what remains behind when sponges are found on the beach or prepared and sold for market. The living part of the sponge exists within this matrix. Water enters the sponge through many pores, and is helped along by specialized cells which sweep the water through interior chambers and canals. The water circulating through the sponge supplies oxygen and food, and removes wastes as well. Sponges pump a surprising amount of water in a day. For example one type of sponge that measures 5 inches by 1/2 inch (10cm. x 1cm.) will pump as much as six gallons (22.5L) of water per day through its chambers.

62. Questions2.htm
sponges. cnidarians. Lophotrochozoans. Ecdysozoans. Deuterostomes. Which of the following worms are annelids and include forms that Live in deep ocean
Not sure? Look it up! EEB/MCB 182: Spring 2005. Lectures by W. M. Schaffer.
Practice Questions: Lectures V-VIII.
Here are some practice questions on the material covered in Lectures V-VIII. Each multiple choice question has a single correct answer which is the format that will be used on the mid-term. I suggest you attempt to answer all of the questions before checking the answers. You should also be prepared to label the principal body parts in Figures 3 and 5-7 of Lecture VIII.
  • Whereas the first organisms were most likely , the oldest known microfossils were similar in appearance to contemporary .
  • Stromatolites Have existed since the Precambrian Formed reef-like structures with photosynthetic bacteria in the upper layers Contributed to the oxygenation of earth's atmosphere Are vulnerable to invertebrate grazers such as snails and worms All of the above
    Complete the following sentences: 1. Fermentation 1. 2 ATP molecules 2. Aerobic metabolism 2. 36 ATP molecules 3. The energy yield of fermentive metabolism (per molecule of glucose "crunched") is 3. entails the production of pyruvate by glycolysis and the conversion of pyruvate to lactic acid or ethanol.
  • 63. WaveLength Paddling Magazine - August/September 1999 Issue
    A brief introduction covering habitats and taxonomy is followed by species descriptions of sponges, cnidarians ctenophores, worms, bryozoans, crustaceans,
    Back to the Home Page Our Latest Issue
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    HTML Web pages Year 2003 Issues in HTML Year 2002 Issues in HTML Year 2001 Issues in HTML Year 2000 Issues in HTML Year 1999 Issues in HTML Year 1998 Issues in HTML Year 1997 Issues in HTML Year 1996 Issues in HTML Year 1995 Issues in HTML Year 1994 Issues in HTML Paddling Destinations Gear Paddling Skills Safety ... WaveLength Forum
    Join in a dialogue Find a Paddling Partner
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    August - September 1999 This is an article from WaveLength Magazine, published bi-monthly since 1991 from our offices on Gabriola Island, B.C., available in print in North America, and around the world on the web. WaveLength is printed on all color, all gloss, ancient rainforest-free paper. Subscription information
    Know Your Neightbours -
    The Last of the Spineless
    Well, that's about it. Over the last seven checklists we covered every group of critters you've seen wiggling around sans backbone on shore and beside your kayak, right?

    64. Göteborg Natural History Museum
    Lower animals as molluscs, protozoans, sponges, cnidarians and worms. Crustaceans and insects are also found on this floor. exhibitions&

    65. Marine Worms: Polyclad Flatworms - Starfish Photos - Marine Würmer: Plattwürme
    Translate this page starfish photo collection of polyclad flatworms (marine worms) - Fotosammlung von Marine Plants - Forams - sponges - cnidarians - worms - Crustaceans
    You find the over 60 photos of marine worms on two pages Polyclad and Acoel flatworms - over 40 photos und Polychaete worms (Annelida) 28 photos (Annelida) 28 Fotos To look at the enlarged photo please click on the thumb nail photo. Some photos have explanatory texts. All photos taken in the Indo-Pacific. More links about marine worms Was bietet Starfish (Kelch-, Platt-, Schnur-, Spritz-, Igel- und Ringelwürmer)
    Genus - Maiazoon - Gattung flatworm - Maiazoon - Strudelwurm / Plattwurm
    Genus - Pseudoceros - Gattung flatworm - Pseudoceros imitatus - Strudelwurm / Plattwurm Pseudoceros imitatus flatworm - Pseudoceros bifurcus - Strudelwurm flatworm - Pseudoceros bifurcus - Strudelwurm / Plattwurm Pseudoceros bifurcus Pseudoceros bifurcus flatworm - Pseudoceros dimidiatus - Strudelwurm / Plattwurm Pseudoceros dimidiatus flatworm - Pseudoceros scriptus - Strudelwurm / Plattwurm Pseudoceros scriptus flatworm - Pseudoceros laingensis - Strudelwurm / Plattwurm Pseudoceros laingensis Pseudoceros laingensis flatworm - Pseudoceros lindae - Strudelwurm / Plattwurm Pseudoceros lindae Pseudoceros lindae flatworm - Acanthozoon - Strudelwurm / Plattwurm flatworm - Pseudoceros ferrugi - Strudelwurm / Plattwurm
    Genus - Pseudobiceros - Gattung flatworm - Pseudobiceros gratus - Strudelwurm Pseudobiceros gratus flatworm - Pseudobiceros bedfordi - Eleganter Plattwurm
    Special photos of mating
    Dazu Text auf Deutsch Pseudoceros laingensis mating Pseudoceros sp.

    66. Silver Team Science:
    sponges, cnidarians, and worms. Mollusks, Arthropods, and Echinoderms. Vertebrates. C. Cells and Heredity. Cell structure and function
    Jackson Creek Middle School Silver Team Science Welcome to Silver Team Science! You know our team is unique because we are a "key element" to the school. We use the letters AGT for class names because Ag is the symbol for Silver on the periodic table, and T represents Team. If you're not quite sure what that means, don't stress. You will learn all about the Periodic Table and its elements before you leave Jackson Creek. Below are a few of the topics we will cover in science class. Some of the topics will be covered a little more in depth than others. Each main topic is a different textbook. 7th Grade: A. From Bacteria to Plants
    • Living Things Viruses and Bacteria Protists and Fungi Plants
    B. Animals
    • Animal Behavior Sponges, Cnidarians, and Worms Mollusks, Arthropods, and Echinoderms Vertebrates
    C. Cells and Heredity
    • Cell structure and function Cell processes and energy Genetics: The Science of Heredity Modern Genetics
    D. Environmental Science

    67. Facts On File, Inc.
    sponges, cnidarians, and worms simple and successful animals on the continental shelf; Mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and tunicates the most

    68. Facts On File, Inc.
    sponges, cnidarians, and worms simple invertebrates in coastal waters; Mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, and bryozoans complex coastal animals

    69. 1843301040 Sea Fishes And Invertebrates Of The Mediterranean
    sponges, cnidarians, Bryozoans, worms, Molluscs, Crustaceans, Echinoderms, Ascidians Fish - Sharks, Rays, Eels, Pipefish, Snipefish, Lizardfish,
    Index Next Record Browse
    For Pricing and Availability Click Here
    Sea Fishes and Invertebrates of the Mediterranean Static Book Details Page - Click Here to go to the BookFellas Website

    Sea Fishes and Invertebrates of the Mediterranean
    ISBN: 1843301040
    By: Wood, Lawson
    Publisher: New Holland Publishers (UK)
    Format: paperback
    SKU: 1843301040 Our Price: 9.89
    Discount: 10%
    RRP: 10.99
    Table of contents: Revealing the fascinating wealth of sea life in the Mediterranean, this compact and easy-to-follow guidebook is illustrated with colour photographs taken in many exotic locations. It contains individual descriptions of 289 species of fishes, coral and invertebrates, arranged in taxonomic order and spanning all genera. It covers the waters around Gibraltar, Spain, France, Monaco, Corsica, Sardinia, Italy, Croatia, Greece, Crete, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Lybia, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, and is designed to be of practical use to divers, snorkellers and underwater photographers. The introduction includes information on limited occurrence of reef formations and their conservation, tips on holiday planning and specific recommended sites.
    Contents: Sea Fishes and Invertebrates of the Mediterranean consists of individual descriptions of 289 species of fishes, corals and invertebrates, arranged in taxonomic order and spanning all genera

    70. Lesson Exchange: What Animal Am I? (Elementary, Science)
    we have been studying different phylum such as mollusk, arthropods, segmented worms, echinoderms, flat worms, sponges, cnidarians, and round worms.
    My Links: chat center
    • Chatboards Print Lesson
      #459. What Animal Am I?
      Science, level: Elementary
      Posted Thu Jun 11 13:19:34 PDT 1998 by Barb Walker and Carolyn Roberts (
      Hudson Community Schools, Hudson, USA
      Materials Required: computer with internet access, project handout, floppy disk, book binding supplies
      Activity Time: one week of 45 minute class sessions
      Concepts Taught: Invertebrates
      What Animal Am I? Animal Riddles 1. What animals do you need to make a square? 2. What can you do if you are surrounded by lions, tigers, leopards, and bears? (To find the answers continue reading) Introduction In the previous unit, we have been studying different phylum such as mollusk, arthropods, segmented worms, echinoderms, flat worms, sponges, cnidarians, and round worms. Discuss with the person sitting to your left a characteristic of each and an example that would fit into that phyla. I will do the first one for you: mollusk -
      soft-bodied animal - squid.

    71. 7th Grade Core Curriculum 2nd Six Weeks
    sponges, cnidarians, worms. mollusks. The five kingdoms; Vertebrates and invertebrates; sponges; cnidarians; worms; Mollusks
    Core Curriculum Major Themes
    2nd Six Weeks
    Additional resources will be added as they are identified.
    If you have suggestions please e-mail the Web Author. Kindergarten 1st grade 2nd grade 3rd grade ... 8th grade
    7th Grade - 2nd Six Weeks
    Sponges, Cnidarians, worms. mollusks
    • The five kingdoms Vertebrates and invertebrates Sponges Cnidarians Worms Mollusks
    Anthropods and echinoderms
    • Arthropods Insects
      • Characteristics Behavior
    Fishes and Amphibians
    • Vertebrates Fishes Amphibians
    Reptiles and birds

    72. Invertebrate Worksheet
    A few sponges are found in , but these are small and not brightly All cnidarians are _ organisms except for the which
    Invertebrate Lecture Worksheet 1. Approximately what percentage of animals are invertebrates? 2. What are invertebrates? 3. Name the phyla of invertebrates and members of each phyla. Sponges 4. are in the phylum Porifera. A few sponges are found in , but these are small and not brightly colored. 6. Sponges have no basic body arrangement and are said to be . 7. Sponges live attached to one spot as adults so they are . called which are composed of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide. 9. Sponges are full of holes called through which water flows into their bodies. 10. Sponges are the simplest animals and lack the level of specialization like all 11. Special cells called choanocytes line the pores and have that spin to pull in water. digesting it. 14. Wastes and excess water leave a sponge through a large opening at the top called the whenever a piece of a sponge breaks off. This last method helps sponges form Sponges sperm with each other and do not fertilize their own eggs. 17. Internal buds or form if the freshwater supply evaporates and are release

    73. The Biology Of Animals Video Series
    The Biology of sponges (2003) (Branches on the Tree of Life sponges DVD Biology of Annelids (2000) Phylum Annelida is made up of segmented worms
    The "BIOLOGY OF" Video Programs THE ANIMAL UNIT
    Here, presented with revealing footage of the organisms, are the great lines of animal life that began around 600 million years ago. Each program treats evolution, phylum characteristics, major classes, larval development, and the natural history of easily-found organisms appropriate for classroom study. Read or link to reviews of these programs
    Details The Biology of Sponges (Branches on the Tree of Life: Sponges DVD - 2005) Phylum Porifera, the simplest of the animal phyla, is an ideal group to begin studies of the animal kingdom. With an estimated 15,000 species diversity, sponges play important roles in aquatic ecosystems as bacterial filters. This program uses underwater photography, microscopy, animation, SEM, and timelapse microscopy to provide a colorful overview of sponge biology with an emphasis on structure, taxonomy, ecology and evolution. . (15 minutes - #BO125) The Biology of Cnidarians The program begins with an in-depth study of Hydra ; its feeding methods, stinging cells, reproduction by budding, and its sex life.

    74. BioEd Online Slides: Sponges, Animalia, Invertebrates, Animals, Mollusks
    While sponges are asymmetrical, virtually all other animals exhibit radial or The cnidarians (hydras, jellies, coral polyps, and sea anemones) and

    75. Invertebrates P;age
    One group will have all three of the worm phylla. Another group will have both the sponges and the cnidarians. The information sheets include 1. naming and

    76. Invertebrates
    Do sponges display cellular level of development? Explain. Are cnidarians at a cellular, tissue, or organ level of development? Is a coelom present?
    Phylum: Porifera The most primitive animals. Where are sponges found (marine, freshwater, terrestrial)? Adults sessile. What type of symmetry is present in sponges? How many germ layers? Are tissues or organs present; a coelom? What is mesoglea? Do sponges display cellular level of development? Explain. What is responsible for sponge coloration? Distinguish:
    • ostia
    • osculum
    Skeleton of spicules. Describe the nature of the various types of spicules in sponges. What is spongin? List the 3 types canal systems. Discuss the role of the following cell types:
    • pinacocytes
    • choanocytes
    • amebocytes
    Is food taken into a digestive cavity? Is digestion intracellular or extracellular? How are the following accomplished:
    • respiration
    • excretion
    • circulation
    Describe sexual and asexual reproduction in sponges.
    Phylum: Cnidaria Where are cnidarians found (marine, freshwater, terrestrial)? What type of symmetry is present in cnidarians? Is a complete digestive tract many openings to it? How is feeding accomplished? How is prey captured? What is a:
    • cnidocyte
    • nematocyst
    • cnidocil
    How many tissue layers? Are cnidarians at a cellular, tissue, or organ level of development? Is a coelom present? What is mesoglea?

    77. New Jersey Scuba Diver - Marine Biology - Invertebrates - Overview
    Because the asconoid type has the smallest surface area, sponges of this cnidarians are radially symmetrical. The mouth, located at the center of one
    Biology Introduction Contents Classification Slideshow ...
    Invertebrates - Overview Marine Invertebrates Freshwater Invertebrates An invertebrate is any multicellular animal lacking a backbone. This includes all animal phyla other than Chordata. The major invertebrate phyla include: Invertebrates are tremendously diverse, ranging from microscopic wormlike mezozoans to huge animals such as the giant squid. Approximately 95% of all the earth’s animal species are invertebrates; of these the vast majority are insects and other arthropods. Invertebrates are important as parasites and are essential elements of all ecological communities. Porifera - Sponges Porifera is an animal phylum consisting of the organisms commonly called sponges. It is the only phylum of the animal subkingdom Parazoa and represents the least evolutionarily advanced group of the animal kingdom. All adult sponges are sessile (nonmotile), and nearly all are marine; there are four families of freshwater sponges.

    78. Biol 1215 Chapt 33 Notes
    sponges (phylum Porifera) are sessile animals lacking true tissues Lack of mesoderm has limited cnidarians to relatively simple body construction.
    Biology Department Biology 1215 Outline Biology 1215 Lecture Notes Chapter 33: Invertebrates
    • Sponges (phylum Porifera) are sessile animals lacking true tissues
      Cnidarians (Phylum Cnidaria) are radiate, diploblastic animals with gastrovascular cavities Flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes) are acoelomate, bilateral, triploblastic animals
      • Planarians
        Tape worms
      Nematodes (Phylum Nematoda) are pseudocoelomates with complete digestive tracts and blood vascular systems.
      Mollusks, Annelids, and Arthropods are among major variations on the protostome body plan.
      • Phylum Mollusca Phylum Annelida
        Phylum Arthropoda
        • Trilobites
          Spiders and other Chelicerates Uniramians Crustaceans
        The deuterostome lineage includes echidoderms and chordates Phylum Echinodermata
      Animals are grouped into about 35 phyla and inhabit nearly all environments on earth. Over 95% of all animals are aquatic and invertebrate (animals without a backbone). Their diversity is the main subject of this chapter. Sponges (phylum Porifera) are sessile animals lacking true tissues
      • Least complex of all animals ( Fig 33.2 and 3

    79. Phyla (General Biology) - Wikibooks
    This phylum consists of the sponges. The number of species is estimated to be Some cnidarians only have the polyp stage, some have only the medusa stage
    Phyla (General Biology)
    From Wikibooks
    General Biology Intro Cells Genetics ... Science bookshelf
    Introduction to animal phyla
    There currently are about 30 recognized phyla. Stephinie tipton is stuped Phylum — Number of Species — Common Name
    • Placozoa — 1 Monoblastozoa — 1 Rhombozoa — 50 Orthonectida — 50 Porifera — 9,000 — sponges (figures) Cnidaria — 9,000 — corals (figures) Ctenophora — 100 — comb jellies Platyhelminthes — 20,000 — flatworms (figures) Nemertea — 900 — ribbon worms (figures) Rotifera — 1,800 — rotifers (figures) Gastrotricha — 450 — gastrotrichs Kinorhyncha — 150 — kinorhynchids Nematoda — 12,000 — roundworms (figures) Nematomorpha — 230 — horsehair worms Priapula — 15 Acanthocephala — 700 — (figures) Entoprocta — 150 Gnathostomulida — 80 Loricifera — 35 Annelida — 15,000 — segmented worms (figures) Sipuncula — 250 — peanut worms (figures) Echiura — 135 Pogonophora — 145 — beard worms Vestimentifera — 8 — beard worms Arthropoda — 957,000 — arthropods (figures)

    80. BIO125 Biology Of The Pacific Northwest Intertidal Lecture
    The sponges are animals with a very simple body plan. The cnidarians (“stinging animals”) are radially symmetrical animals usually with tentacles that
    Animals of the Intertidal Zones [This can accompany the text on pages 166-186 in the National Audubon Society: Field Guide to the Pacific Northwest ] First off, a brief introduction to the Linnaean Classification System used by taxonomists. This naming system is defined as hierarchical and binomial: “hierarchical” as it consists of smaller and more inclusive taxa as one narrows down the classification of a species, and binomial because of the official biological name that is derived for each species from the Linnaean System. The scientific name for a species is a combination of the organism's Genus and species written in a very specific and some say “nerdy” format. The Genus name is capitalized and italicized (or underlined), and the species name is lower-case and also italicized (or underlined). If the two names are underlined, they are underlined individually and not with one continuous underline. For instance, humans are all scientifically: Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens And the Ochre (or Purple) Sea Star is scientifically: Pisaster ochraceous or Pisaster ochraceous Why use confusing scientific names at all? (No, scientists are not arrogant and pretentious!) Scientific names are constant world-wide; while common names often differ from country to country or in some cases even region to region. For instance, one person's Rock Dove is another person's Pigeon, but Columba livia is the same to both people.

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