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         Space Mission Tracking:     more detail
  1. SpaceOps 92 proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Ground Data Systems for Space Mission Operations, November 16-20, 1992, Pasadena, California, USA (SuDoc NAS 1.55:194486) by NASA, 1993
  2. Research in software allocation for advanced manned mission communications and tracking systems final report (SuDoc NAS 1.26:188114) by Tom Warnagiris, 1990
  3. An orbit simulation study of a geopotential research mission including satellite-to-satellite tracking and disturbance compensation systems (SuDoc NAS 1.26:182353) by Peter G. Antreasian, 1988
  4. Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-77 (SuDoc NAS 1.15:111679) by Gregory N. Katnik, 1996
  5. Continuous prediction of spartan visibility from orbiter over modeled free-flight mission (NASA technical memorandum) by Joseph C King, 1987
  6. Network operations support plan for the SPOT 2 mission by Victor Werbitzky, 1989

61. DSN: Features: Where Are The Missions That The DSN Is Tracking?
Where Are the Missions that the DSN is tracking? The huge antennas of theDeep space Network, in California s Mojave Desert, near Madrid, Spain,
View the NASA Portal Articles DSN Brochure GAVRT ... How a Real DSN Station Is Built Where Are the Missions that the DSN is Tracking? Where Are Spirit and Opportunity Right Now?
Two NASA Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, are on the surface of Mars. Click here to see incredible images being returned through the Deep Space Network. The huge antennas of the Deep Space Network, in California's Mojave Desert, near Madrid, Spain, and outside Canberra, Australia track robotic spacecraft for NASA and other international space agencies. Click on the missions below to find out where they are now in their journeys of exploration.
  • Where Is Stardust Right Now? - See simulated, computer generated, diagrams of Stardust's position, updated every 10 minutes. Cassini Present Position - Includes a trajectory diagram and simulated views of Saturn, Jupiter, and Earth as seen from the spacecraft. Voyager Status Reports - Scroll down to "Flight System Performance" to learn details such as the distance of the two Voyager spacecraft from the Earth and the speed at which they are traveling. Where Is Tempel 1?

62. Victor Amateur Radio Association (VARA) -- W2VTM Camden, NJ
Delaware Valley (SNJ, EPA, DE, MD) Hamfest calendar, exams and classes, contests, shuttle missions and SAREX, space reference information, Keplerian elements and tracking programs, call searches, postage rates, QSL look-ups, FCC and license information, and reference data.
Victor Amateur Radio Association (VARA)
The VICTOR AMATEUR RADIO ASSOCIATION (VARA) is the employee amateur radio club of L-3 Communications Systems - East and other successors of the Victor Talking Machine Company (VTMC), and sister organizations. The club started when we were the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), and now includes employees and retirees of RCA, GE Aerospace, Martin Marietta, Lockheed Martin , and L-3 Communications Systems - East . We are headquartered at the Camden Waterfront Technology Center, Camden, NJ, in the shadow of our former Nipper Building , on the Delaware River overlooking the city of Philadelphia, PA (see the view from our building ). Affiliated members are located in Moorestown, NJ and throughout the country. We operate the Camden repeater (146.82-). Our members and former members have been pioneers in the communications business, a century-long heritage which started in 1901 here in Camden. Were you looking for information on antique records, players, radios, etc.? Click here for Victor/RCA Link Site VARA Web Sites and Links Club Information Club History and Background Information Victor Talking Machine/RCA Web Sites Hamfest Schedule Hamfests in South Jersey/Philadelphia/MD/DE Metro Area Ham Activities What hams like to do - table of activities, buzzwords, links, and equipment

63. STSPLUS Home Page
STSORBIT PLUS STSORBIT PLUS space Shuttle and Satellite tracking Software for use during space Shuttle missions and for general satellite tracking using
STSORBIT PLUS Space Shuttle and Satellite Tracking Software
by David H. Ransom, Jr.

STSORBIT PLUS, usually known as STSPLUS, will track the space shuttle or any satellite for which orbital data (TLEs) are available. A brief description of the program and several screen capture examples follow the links for downloading the program files. Comments, bug reports, and suggestions are invited.
e-mail: David H. Ransom, Jr.
STSPLUS Version 0223 (10 June 2002)
This is a minor update which updates the internal ISS icons to reflect the addition of the Zvezda module. Greg Swift's STSUPDAT adds the capability of transparent orbital data updates via the Internet. A single keypress while the tracking map is displayed will update all the current satellite TLEs! Download the new release of STSPLUS here and use the special STSUPDAT download link (below) to download that program. NOTE: STSUPDAT requires Win95/98/NT/2000. WinNT/2000 users please read the STSPLUS Update Notes for additional information.
Download Hi-Res Shuttle Launch Image
(Courtesy NASA)
To obtain the current STSPLUS Update Notes, read or download the following file:

64. Small Satellites May Play Big Role In Future Interplanetary Missions
The European space Agency, for example, is taking a look at a lowcost, spacecraft tracking data obtained during the Apollo program and more recently
Thurs. Jul 07, 2005
Monday, August 8, 2005
Small Satellites May Play Big Role In Future Interplanetary Missions
By Brian Berger
Staff Writer

Proponents of small satellites say that tiny spacecraft have potentially big roles to play in planetary exploration. Today’s small satellites—generally spacecraft weighing around several hundred kilograms—are confined largely to low Earth orbit where they perform remote sensing missions, conduct science operations and serve as technology testbeds and communication relays. But some forward thinkers are already looking ahead to interplanetary missions and see small satellites as a good fit with the space exploration agendas outlined by the world’s spacefaring nations. The European Space Agency, for example, is taking a look at a low-cost, multiple spacecraft Venus mission that would utilize small satellite technologies, including a small, deployable weather balloon of sorts, to study the planet. The Indian Space Research Organization last year short listed a gravity-mapping nanosatellite for inclusion on its Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter mission.

65. The Solar Sail
Image The Planetary Society (c). More about the tracking stations The Russianspace organizations are also investing in mission support to advance
Cosmos 1 Home Project Update FAQs ... The Planetary Society Get Involved!
Sign-up for

email updates

Donate to

Cosmos 1
Join The Planetary Society!
Solar Sail Update, June 2, 2005 Worldwide Network to Track Solar Sail Spacecraft
NASA, NOAA Sign Agreements with The Planetary Society to Receive Data from the Mission by Susan Lendroth
A map segment showing the Fairbanks, Berkeley, and AMOS tracking stations. Click on the image for the complete map showing all stations around the world
Image: The Planetary Society (c) More about the tracking stations Read Project Director Louis Friedman's Latest Update:
Poised for Success
From Moscow to the Marshall Islands and California to the Czech Republic, tracking stations around the world will receive data from Cosmos 1 , the world's first solar sail spacecraft after it launches on June 21, 2005. The innovative solar sail, a project of The Planetary Society and Cosmos Studios, which was built in Russia, will launch atop a converted ICBM from a submerged Russian submarine in the Barents Sea.

66. Robert Lentz's Space Resources
Missions. Buzz Aldrin s space Watch A page put up in commemoration of the Apollo11 25th Xsat, a satellite tracking program for the X Window System.
Watch for falling links
Space Resources
"Earth is the cradle of humanity, but one cannot live in the cradle forever."
-Konstantin E. Tsiolkovski See also Robert's Astronomy Resources

67. ESA - GSP - Basic 05B08
Accurate Deep space tracking of spacecraft relies on excellent Ground Current ESA flying Deep space missions such as Mars Express and Rosetta are
ESA GSP Article contents Relevance to GSP and ESA future programmes: Background: Brief Description: References: More information Introduction 2005 Review Workshop Planned Inspirational Utilitarian Basic Completed Inspirational Utilitarian Basic Services Subscribe Search All
ESA Home Advanced Search Basic
Year of Execution: 2005/6 Duration: 12 months
Feasibility and applications of optical clocks as frequency and time references in ESA Deep Space stations

The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of using optical clocks as frequency standards in ESA Deep Space antennas. In particular, the study shall:
  • assess the state of the art in optical clocks
  • comment on the expected performances and potential applications arising from them
  • address the synthesis of optical frequencies
  • analyse the distribution of optical clock signals
  • evaluate the regeneration into microwave frequencies for station frequency users
  • argue the cost, operation and maintenance of optical clocks
  • report on measurement techniques and real time monitoring for this equipment
  • discuss the industrialisation of these standards
  • present a timeplan for these activities, indicating a realistic date in which optical standards could be integrated in ESA Deep Space Antennas.

68. Communication And Tracking
In space missions, we have to optimize the trajectory of rockets as well SOC operates as a part of the space tracking and Data Network (STDN) of JAXA.
JAXA TopPage Missions Projects Space Science Research
Usuda Deep Space Center
In space missions, we have to optimize the trajectory of rockets as well as the orbits of satellites and spacecraft. The development of the trajectory plan is an essential area of investigation for the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science.
- Orbital Engineering
In order to send satellites and orbiters on target, we have to determine exactly when and how to launch the rockets that take them into space. When assessing orbits, we have to take many different elements into account, including the gravitational pull of the Earth, the Sun, and the other planets. Orbital engineering is the field that handles this work.
- Mission Analysis
An important element of planning a space mission is calculating the most efficient flight path, which uses the least amount of fuel possible to reach the Moon, an asteroid, or a planet such as Venus or Jupiter. To design this path, and to place the spacecraft into the right orbit on arrival at its destination, we have to calculate the movement of planets. Sometimes we use the method called "swing-by," which uses the gravity of a planet to change the direction of a spacecraft and catapult it further into space. This kind of planning requires an enormous amount of analysis and computation.
- Satellite Tracking and Control
Sagamihara Operation Center (SOC) at the Sagamihara Campus is in charge of tracking and controlling scientific satellites. SOC operates as a part of the Space Tracking and Data Network (STDN) of JAXA. It sends commands to the satellites, and receives data from them. Commands sent from SOC are actually sent to outer space from the Usuda Deep Space Center (Usuda-cho, Nagano Prefecture) or the Uchinoura Space Center (USC) (Uchinoura, Kagoshima Prefecture). At the Usuda Deep Space Center, the antenna is 64 meters in diameter, and mainly communicates with probes that are headed for the Moon and for other planets. The antenna at USC mainly is used to communicate with satellites orbiting Earth.

69. Bill Keel's Space Bits - Tracking The Apollo Flights
Telescopic tracking of the Apollo Lunar Missions In practice, most sightingin deep space were of the steadier diffuse reflection from the entire
Telescopic Tracking of the Apollo Lunar Missions
Watching satellites in Earth orbit has proven to be a popular and easy pastime. It may not be appreciated these days that it was possible to observe the Apollo spacecraft during transits between Earth and Moon. Many of these reports exist only in printed form, from a time before most electronic indexing has reached. This page begins to document telescopic observations of the Apollo lunar missions. It remains a work in progress, and I welcome further contributions and references. Small thumbnail images link to larger versions. The first sightings of each mission were of course the launches, watched by hundreds of thousands of people lining the Florida beaches. I start the fun with these two images, which I took at age 13 before and during the launch of Apollo 15. Enough of the boyhood reminiscences. Now on to the really distant views!
Apollo 8
Apollo 8 was extensively tracked, owing to the great interest in the mission and the novelty of the lunar trajectory, as well as somewhat better illumination than some later missions. Many reports were collected in an article in the March 1969 issue of Sky and Telescope Multiple objects followed an Apollo in its path to the moon. For much of the way, until a major course correction, the four Spacecraft Lunar-Module Adapter (SLA) panels which which formerly protected the lunar module (or, for Apollo 8, a dummy mass taking the LM's place) would still be tumbling in the same telescopic field of view. For early missions, the Saturn V third stage itself (S-IVB) would remain close to the spacecraft as well. (One of these, likely from Apollo 12, was temporarily recaptured into a large orbit around Earth after 30 years in a solar orbit, in late 2002-2003). Most of the later S-IVBs were deliberately crashed into the moon, generating seismic signals of known strength and location to be picked up by the Apollo surface instrument packages).This artist's conception (NASA S68-51306) shows the panels being jettisoned from Apollo 8, while AS08-16-2584 is an Apollo 8 photograph showing the S-IVB after separation of the spacecraft and SLA panels.

70. Choreographing Affordable, Next-Generation Space Missions Using
Choreographing Affordable, NextGeneration space Missions Using Satellite ground moving target (jeeps or tanks) detection and tracking capability.

71. Bester Tracking Systems, Inc.
Satellite tracking and Orbit Propagation. Reports and mission Planning Products.Pass Scheduling and Orbit Event Analysis
Bester Tracking Systems, Inc. Services and Products for the Aerospace Community Consulting Services Mission Analysis and Design Ground Systems Engineering Mission Operations Flight Dynamics Support Telemetry Analysis Software Development COTS Products Specialized Applications Supported Missions CHIPS HETE COSMOS 1 IMAGE ... THEMIS SatTrack Suite V4.5 Features Satellite Tracking and Orbit Propagation Reports and Mission Planning Products Pass Scheduling and Orbit Event Analysis Dynamic Communications Link Modeling 3-D Visualization of Complex Scenarios User Defined Regions and Contours Constellation and Formation Flying Support Global Positioning System Coverage Mutual RF Interference Analysis Close Approach Analysis Batch Mode and Interactive Mode Client/Server Network Environment Ground Station and Sensor Control Telemetry Data Routing and Processing Automation Support Please Contact Us:
Bester Tracking Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 2278
Suisun City, CA 94585
Phone: 707-399-0360
Fax: 707-399-0366
Email: Bester Tracking Systems, Inc.

72. Space Today Online - Chinese Astronauts Called Yuhangyuans Fly In Shenzhou Capsu
Newest of the space tracking ships, Yuanwang 4, was the former scientific Only the United States and Russia have launched manned space missions in the
To be launched in fall 2005...
China Prepares For Second Astronaut Flight
Chinese artist concept of a
Shenzhou in orbit above Earth The Peoples Republic of China, the world's most populous nation, is about to launch its second manned spacecraft to Earth orbit.
Expected for late September or early October 2005, the Shenzhou 6 manned space capsule will carry two astronauts on a five- to six-day flight 200 miles above Earth.
China already is the third nation able to send a man into space after its October 2003 launch of astronaut Yang Liwei aboard Shenzhou 5. He orbited Earth 14 times and landed by parachute in China's northern grasslands. Today he is a celebrity.
Fourteen military pilots have been trained as astronauts for the Shenzhou 6 mission in 2005. They were divided into seven pairs. Their number was reduced when three pairs were selected from the pool in December 2004. Yang was believed to be among the finalists. Chinese space officials will pick the final pair of astronauts shortly before the flight.
The two-person flight will be an early landmark in the Asian nation's long-range plan. China wants to:

73. VARA Shuttle/Satellite Tracking Software & Keplerian Elements
Click here to see what the space Station looks like on a visible pass (courtesyNASA) (note that the OIG site is frequently busy during shuttle missions
Victor Amateur Radio Association (VARA)
ISS/Shuttle/Satellite Tracking Software and Links to Keplerian Elements Pages
See AMSAT's Review of various tracking software or
AMSAT's Downloadable Software site
Tracking Software PC Shareware PC Purchased Macintosh UNIX/LINUX ... Handhelds Web-based Web-based Tracking Pass Predictions Keplerian Elements Keplerian Elements Moon/EME Phase 3D (AO-40) Telemetry Demod Mission Related Launch Info NASA TV Shuttle Audio Retransmission References Space Reference Page Links to Related Sites E-mail List Subscriptions Add Comments to our Guest Book ... Click here to see what the Space Station looks like on a visible pass (courtesy NASA)
The animation shows a simulated pass of International Space Station through the constellation Orion. This is what a bright satellite pass is like. Visible satellite passes occur after sunset and before dawn.

  • Flyover by Tom Sylvester (requires payment for full-featured version) PREDICT - Satellite orbital prediction for DOS; optimized for speed; by

74. RedNova - Space Missions
space Science Missions. We have quite a few missions, some wellknown and others Near-Earth object detection, tracking, and characterization , including
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Return to Flight
RedNova E-Mail My RedNova Join RedNova RSS Feeds ... Tell A Friend, Win $500 g_url = window.location.href; g_format = '120x600_as'; g_type = 'text'; g_color_bg = 'FCF6E6'; g_color_text = ''; g_color_link = '0000ff'; g_color_url = '990000'; g_color_border = 'FCF6E6'; g_color_line = ''; g_channel='top_space+ad_a'; show_google_ad(120, 601); Home Space Exploration Space Missions Space Science Missions We have quite a few missions, some well-known and others not so well known. Many involve cooperation with international partners or other U.S. agencies . The links below will take you directly to the mission's home page; for full names and brief descriptions of these missions, click on the column headings (i.e., Under study In development Operating , or Past missions ). We also have a page with some

75. - Cataloging Space Junk - Aug 2, 2005
When space shuttle Discovery blasted off, it joined thousands and thousands ofmanmade objects mission Safety Crew Audio quiz Shuttle milestones
cnnSiteWideCurrDate = new Date(2005, 8, 26); International Edition Member Services
  • Home Page World ... Shuttle milestones
    Cataloging space junk
    Working on the 'world's largest jigsaw puzzle'
    By Douglas S. Wood
    var clickExpire = "-1"; One entrance to the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center inside Cheyenne Mountain.
    Flash: Space shuttle system Flash: All about the ISS Gallery: Crew of Discovery Interactive: Flight data Special Report
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Programs Space Exploration U.S. Air Force or Create Your Own Manage Alerts What Is This? (CNN) When space shuttle Discovery blasted off, it joined thousands and thousands of manmade objects orbiting Earth. But should one of those objects hit the craft as it orbits at 16,000 mph, it could cause severe damage and a scuttled mission. The shuttle crew is too busy to watch out for objects in Discovery's orbit, and because no traffic cops patrol space, tracking is the responsibility of the 1st Space Control Squadron (SPCS) of the U.S. Air Force Space Command, which operates the Space Control Center (SCC) inside Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The squadron is charged with detecting, tracking, identifying and cataloging all manmade objects orbiting Earth larger than 10 centimeters (4 inches) long.

76. Cosmos 1 - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Had the mission been successful, it would have been the firstever orbital use A network of tracking stations around the world tried to maintain contact
Cosmos 1
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
An artist's rendering of Cosmos 1 orbiting the Earth. Cosmos 1 was a project by The Planetary Society to test a solar sail in space. As part of the project, an unmanned solar sail spacecraft was launched into space at 15:46:09 EDT UTC ) on June 21 , from the submarine Borisoglebsk in the Barents Sea . However, a rocket failure prevented it from reaching its intended orbit. Once in orbit, the spacecraft was supposed to deploy a large sail, upon which photons from the Sun would push, thereby increasing the spacecraft's velocity (the contributions from the solar wind are similar, but of much smaller magnitude). Had the mission been successful, it would have been the first-ever orbital use of a solar sail to speed up a spacecraft, as well as the first space mission by a space advocacy group . The project budget was USD $4 million.

77. Past Space Shuttle Missions: Space Shuttle Flights, Space Shuttle Manifest And L
Past space shuttle missions, space shuttle flights, space shuttle 53, 54,Endeavour, 0113-93, tracking Data Relay Satellite TDRS-F, 5, Casper
Home Hale-Bopp Space Memorabilia Mercury ... Ordering Info Past
Space Shuttle Flights

Here is a comprehensive list of every space shuttle launch since 1981 to the present. FLT STS VEHICLE LAUNCH Major payload(s) or objective(s) Crew Commander Columbia 1st Developmental Flight Young Columbia 2nd Developmental Flight. Test robot arm (RMS) Engle Top Next Columbia 3rd Developmental Flight Lousma Columbia 4th Developmental Flight Mattingly Columbia Sat. Business Systems-C Brand Top Next Challenger Weitz Challenger German Shuttle Pallet Sat. -01 Crippen Challenger 1 communications satellite Truly Columbia First Spacelab Mission (SL-1) Young Top Next 41-B Challenger Shuttle Pallet Sat. -01A. First test of MMU jetpack Brand 41-C Challenger Long Duration Exposure Facility-01 Crippen 41-D Discovery 3 communications satellites Hartsfield 41-G Challenger Environmental satellite ERBS Crippen 51-A Discovery 2 comsats, 2 satellite retrievals/recoveries Hauck Top Next 51-C Discovery First military (DOD) mission Mattingly 51-D Discovery Canadian Telecom. Sat.-I. EVA to repair Syncom IV sat. Bobko 51-B Challenger Spacelab-03 Overmyer 51-G Discovery 3 communications satellites Brandenstein 51-F Challenger Spacelab-02 Fullerton 51-I Discovery Australian Communications Sat.-01

78. ASEE - Resources\Opportunities - Fellowships - NASA Johnson Space Center - Engin
for long duration space missions including the International space Station The tracking requirements will include rendezvous radar, trafficcontrol
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NASA Johnson Space Center
NASA White Sands Test Facility
Co-Directing Institutions:
Period of Appointment: June 2nd through August 10th, 2004
Research Opportunities at JSC - Engineering
Advanced Life Support Systems Research opportunities exist in chemistry, physics, horticulture and plant physiology, soil science, water chemistry, and environmental, chemical, biological, mechanical, computer, and systems engineering disciplines. Opportunities exist for studies of dynamic computer analysis and simulation methodology for hybrid physicochemical and biological systems and development of mathematical models of candidate processes to be integrated into regenerative life-support systems. For additional information, see:

79. Jodrell Bank's Role In Early Space Tracking Activities
comment to ongoing space missions was the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories, Indirectly and directly it seems that the space tracking activities
Jodrell Bank's role in early space tracking activities - Part 1
Sven Grahn Table of Contents Part 2
  • Tracking Soviet Interplanetary probes
      Venera-1 Mars-1 Zond 1 and 2 Venera 4 - the first of a series of instrumented entries in the atmosphere of another planet
    Ranger tracking Luna 4-14, the second generation Soviet lunar probes
      Luna 4,5,6,7,8 - trying again and again to land on the moon Luna 9 - the first landing on the moon Luna 10, 11, and 12 - shifting the focus to lunar orbit Luna 13 and 14
    Tests of a Soviet piloted circumlunar spacecraft - Zond 4-8
      Launches in 1967 Zond 4 and the launch attempt in April 1968 Zond 5 - a strange Soviet game of hide-and-seek and voices from the sky Zond 6 - a dress rehearsal that went wrong? Zond 7
    Luna 15-24 Jodrell Bank and public opinion about the space race
A strange new world
During the first years of the space age the public was exposed to a strange new world. Journalists and scientists scrambled to explain it and interpret technology and events. A source of facts about and authoritative comment to ongoing space missions was the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories, Jodrell Bank, Cheshire (called Jodrell Bank hereinafter) and its director, professor (later Sir) Bernard Lovell. The observatory could intercept signals from space vehicles, interpret their general meaning as to progress of this particular space mission and thereby provide an independent source of news. Especially, official news about Soviet space events was not always completely candid.

80. About Pioneer 10
The history of the Pioneer 10 tracking status is available from the web site be of interest for engineering design of long duration deep space missions.
NASA Office of Logic Design
A scientific study of the problems of digital engineering for space flight systems,
with a view to their practical solution.
Pioneer 10
NSSDC ID: Other Names
  • Pioneer-F
Launch Date/Time: 1972-03-03 at 01:49:00 UTC
On-orbit Dry Mass: 258 kg
Nominal Power Output: 165 W
The history of the Pioneer 10 tracking status is available from the web site of the former Pioneer Project at the following location: Fifteen experiments were carried to study the interplanetary and planetary magnetic fields; solar wind parameters; cosmic rays; transition region of the heliosphere; neutral hydrogen abundance; distribution, size, mass, flux, and velocity of dust particles; Jovian aurorae; Jovian radio waves; atmosphere of Jupiter and some of its satellites, particularly Io; and to photograph Jupiter and its satellites. Instruments carried for these experiments were magnetometer, plasma analyzer, charged particle detector, ionizing detector, non-imaging telescopes with overlapping fields of view to detect sunlight reflected from passing meteoroids, sealed pressurized cells of argon and nitrogen gas for measuring the penetration of meteoroids, UV photometer, IR radiometer, and an imaging photopolarimeter, which produced photographs and measured polarization. Further scientific information was obtained from the tracking and occultation data. Communications were maintained via (1) the omnidirectional and medium-gain antennas which operated together while connected to one receiver and (2) the high-gain antenna which was connected to another receiver. These receivers could be interchanged by command to provide some redundancy. Two radio transmitters, coupled to two traveling-wave tube amplifiers, produced 8 W at 2292 MHz each. Uplink was accomplished at 2110 MHz, while data transmission downlink was at 2292 MHz. The data were received by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) at bit rates up to 2048 bps enroute to Jupiter and at 16 bps near end of the mission.

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