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1. Somalia Country Studies - Federal Research Division, Library Of
A Country Study Somalia Sources of Opposition. History and Development of the Armed Forces. The Warrior Tradition and Development of a

2. Somalia Somaliland On The Internet
Haji Mukhtar and I. M. Lewis, a "Chronology of Digil Mirifle History of Somalia " by Mohamed Aden on Somalia), the Regional Household Energy

3. The Country People Of Somalia
East, North Africa, Arab and regional information History Muslim Arabs and Persians established trading posts along Somalia's coasts from the

4. The History Of Somalia
The History of Somalia. Below is a brief history of Somalia. loyalties, which contributed to a basic split between the regional interests of

5. Somalia History
Somalia History overview of historic events the travel guide you write Recent Changes a basic split between the regional interests of

6. - Somalia History Independence And Its Aftermath
Somalia Political Geography Somalia sOmA leu Pronunciation Key History- by Southwestern Somaliland, the fourth such regional state to be

7. Somalia - History And Politics
SOMALIA History and Politics (Updated March 2005)

8. History Of Somalia
Mother Earth Travel Country Index Somalia Map Economy History the only nation perceived by Somalis and by the regional states as being in

9. History Of Somalia
Somalia HISTORY. Early history traces the development of the Somali people to an Arab brought a basic split between the regional interests of

10. Somalia History
Somaliland, the fourth such regional state to be Page Tools Cite. Print. Email. Related content from HighBeam Research on Somalia History

11. Somalia History
Early history traces the development of the Somali people to an Arab a basicsplit between the regional interests of the former Britishcontrolled north
Somalia History - overview of historic events the travel guide you write Recent Changes
  • Home Destinations Mapsonomy ... Somalia Sections Map View Enlargement
    [edit this] [Upload image] Early history traces the development of the Somali people to an Arab sultanate whih was founded in the seventh century A.D. by Koreishite immigrants from Yemen. During the 15th and 16th centuries Portuguese traders landed in present Somali territory and ruled several coastal towns. The sultan of Zanzibar subsequently took control of these towns and their surrounding territory. ASStopia modern history began in the late l9th century when various European powers began to trade and establish themselves in the area that thet were located in. The British East India Company's desire for unrestricted harbor facilities led to the conclusion of treaties with the sultan of Tajura as early as 1840. It was not until 1886 however that the British gained control over northern Somalia through treaties with various Somali chiefs who were guaranteed British protection. British objectives centered on safeguarding trade links to the east and securing local sources of food and provisions. The boundary between Ethiopia and British Somaliland was established in 1897 through treaty negotiations between British negotiators and King Menelik. During the first two decades of this century British rule was challenged through persistent attacks led by the Islamic nationalist leader Mohamed Abdullah. A long series of intermittent engagements and truces ended in 1920 when British warplanes bombed Abdullah's stronghold at Taleex. Although Abdullah was defeated as much by rival Somali factions as by British forces he was lauded as a popular hero and stands as a major figure of Somali national identity.

12. History Of Somalia - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Early history. The original settlers of the Somali region were ethnic Cushites from The regime pledged continuance of regional détente in its foreign
History of Somalia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Early History
The original settlers of the Somali region were ethnic Cushites from the fertile lakes of southern Ethiopia . This group is sub-divided into a number of other ethnicities, which are still readily recognized (and fought over) today. Archeological evidence supports the idea that most of the coastline of present day Somalia had been settled by AD 100. G.W.B. Huntingford has argued in his translation of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea , written about this time, that the "Lesser and Greater Bluffs", the "Lesser and Greater Strands", and the "Seven Courses" of Azania all should be identified with the Somali coastline from Hafun south to Siyu Channel . This indicate that parts of Somalia were familiar to Roman and Indian traders by this time. These early villages put the Somalis in contact with Arab traders travelling along the Red Sea and Indian Ocean . In the ensuing centuries, the Somalis were one of the first peoples to convert to Islam . The Arabs established the city of Zeila (Now Saylac ) on the Horn of Africa which would last as a central trading hub until the 17th century, when it was sacked by

TABLES OF MODERN MONETARY history regional TABLES by Kurt Schuler Possibly alsoGuineaBissau 1975-1986 and somalia in the 1970s, but information is
by Kurt Schuler
Preliminary version, May 2005
I welcome comments from knowledgeable readers. Should you have a suggested correction, please specify the source of your information. I am most interested in information from primary sources, particularly laws and the reports of monetary authorities.
Notes So far the tables for Africa, Asia, and Australia/Pacific are finished, though they are subject to revision. "Present" refers to 2005 in the tables of monetary authorities.
Table. African countries that have had various types of monetary authorities Systems with competitive issue of the monetary base Free bankingCompetitive issue by banks of notes (paper money) and deposits with few special regulations. Fixed exchange rate with gold, silver, or a foreign currency. Lesotho (1902-21), Malawi (1894-1940), Mauritius (1813-17, 1817-24*, 1824-5, 1832-49), Namibia (1915-61), South Africa (1837-1920, 1920-1*), Swaziland (1897-1921), Zambia (1906-40), Zimbabwe (1892-1940). Besides these episodes, there was also limited competition in Mozambique (1919-42*). Botswana (1897) and Nigeria (sometime 1899-1912) had episodes of note issue by a single bank either too brief or not extensive enough to usefully classify as free banking. Free issueUnusual system with neither an exchange rate target nor centralized control of the monetary base.

14. Somalia: History
2002) by Southwestern Somaliland, the fourth such regional state to beproclaimed, were further A history of SF operations in somalia 19921995.
in All Infoplease Almanacs Biographies Dictionary Encyclopedia
Daily Almanac for
Sep 25, 2005

15. Somalia
to landlocked Ethiopia and establish commercial ties with regional states; somalia history - history Early and Colonial Periods Between the 7th
in All Infoplease Almanacs Biographies Dictionary Encyclopedia
Daily Almanac for
Sep 25, 2005

16. Somalia (09/05)
While the terrorist threat in somalia is real, somalia’s rich history and cultural The selfdeclared “Republic of Somaliland” consists of a regional
Bureau of Public Affairs Electronic Information and Publications Office Background Notes
Bureau of African Affairs
September 2005
Background Note: Somalia

NOTE: Somalia has been without a central government since 1991, and much of the territory has been subject to serious civil strife. There is no official U.S. representation in Somalia. Statistical data on Somalia in this report date from 2002 and are subject to dispute and error. Geography
Area: 637,657 sq. km.; slightly smaller than Texas.
Cities: Capital Mogadishu. Other cities Beledweyne, Kismayo, Baidoa, Jowhar, Merca, Bosasso, Hargeisa, Berbera.
Terrain: Mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in the north.
Climate: Principally desert; December to Februarynortheast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north, and very hot in the south; May to Octobersouthwest monsoon, torrid in the north, and hot in the south; irregular rainfall; hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons. People
Nationality: Noun Somali(s).

17. Somalia Courts - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natural Resources, Curr
somalia Courts Flags, Maps, Economy, history, Climate, Natural Resources, There were eight regional courts, each consisting of three divisions.

Somalia Courts
Sources: The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook
    Back to Somalia Government The constitution of 1961 had provided for a unified judiciary independent of the executive and the legislature. A 1962 law integrated the courts of northern and southern Somalia into a four-tiered system: the Supreme Court, courts of appeal, regional courts, and district courts. Sharia courts were discontinued although judges were expected to take the sharia into consideration when making decisions. The Siad Barre government did not fundamentally alter this structure; nor had the provisional government made any significant changes as of May 1992. At the lowest level of the Somali judicial system were the eighty-four district courts, each of which consisted of civil and criminal divisions. The civil division of the district court had jurisdiction over matters requiring the application of the sharia, or customary law, and suits involving claims of up to 3,000 Somali shillings (for value of the shilling , see Glossary). The criminal division of the district court had jurisdiction over offenses punishable by fines or prison sentences of less than three years.

18. Somalia POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Clim
count took place during one of the worst droughts in somalia s recorded history, (When the civil war broke out in 1991, the regional administrative

Sources: The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook
    Back to Somalia Society Mangrove swamp near Chisimayu; in rainy season dense roots protect coastal area from erosion
    Courtesy Hiram A. Ruiz The total population according to the 1975 census was 3.3 million. The United Nations (UN) estimated Somalia's population in mid-1991 at nearly 7.7 million. Not included were numerous refugees who had fled from the Ogaden (Ogaadeen) in Ethiopia to Somalia beginning in the mid-1970s (see Refugees , this ch.). The Ministry of National Planning's preliminary census data distinguished three main categories of residents: nomads, settled farmers, and persons in nonagricultural occupations. Settled farmers lived in permanent settlements outside the national, regional, and district capitals, although some of these were in fact pastoralists, and others might have been craftsmen and small traders. Those living in urban centers were defined as nonagricultural regardless of their occupations. In 1975 nomads constituted nearly 59 percent of the population, settled persons nearly 22 percent, and nonagricultural persons more than 19 percent. Of the population categorized as nomads, about 30 percent were considered seminomadic because of their relatively permanent settlements and shorter range of seasonal migration.

19. Press Releases: Regional Idea Exchange
Overview of somalia history and Culture. Roles of Women in Somali CultureStruggles, Strengths and Accomplishments. School Challenges Successes
By Rights: Ask the Commissioner The Rights Stuff newsletter on-line Settlement agreements MDHR Report to the Legislature ... Somali Culture: An Islamic Point of View
Press Releases
July 22, 2000: Somali Culture and Islamic Values conference set for August 16 in Rochester A major conference on "Understanding Somali Culture and Islamic Values" is scheduled for Wednesday, August 16 in Rochester, MN. The conference is designed to enable educators, public service providers and those encountering people in the Somali culture to have a better understanding of their history, culture, and the problems and misperceptions that confront them in American society. The League cosponsored a conference on Somali culture at Roosevelt High School in Minnesota last October. Like Minneapolis and St. Paul, Rochester has a growing Somali population. "Of the more than 22,000 Somali who have recently settled in the United States, more than half live in Minnesota," observed Minnesota Commissioner of Human Rights Janeen Rosas. "We believe it's important for Minnesotans to understand the culture and challenges facing these new immigrants, and we're delighted to be partnering with the League to co-sponsor this event." The conference will feature a series of workshops with Somali experts, exploring Islamic values, family and community structure. Workshop topics will include.

20. Somalia - HISTORY
In addition to southward migration, a second factor in Somali history from the Igaal s policy of regional détente resulted in improved relations with
Somalia - HISTORY
Somalia - History
Somalia LOCATED IN THE HORN OF AFRICA, adjacent to the Arabian Peninsula, Somalia is steeped in thousands of years of history. The ancient Egyptians spoke of it as "God's Land" (the Land of Punt). Chinese merchants frequented the Somali coast in the tenth and fourteenth centuries and, according to tradition, returned home with giraffes, leopards, and tortoises to add color and variety to the imperial menagerie. Greek merchant ships and medieval Arab dhows plied the Somali coast; for them it formed the eastern fringe of Bilad as Sudan, "the Land of the Blacks." More specifically, medieval Arabs referred to the Somalis, along with related peoples, as the Berberi. Somalia
Somalia Increasingly, evidence places the Somalis within a wide family of peoples called Eastern Cushites by modern linguists and described earlier in some instances as Hamites. From a broader cultural-linguistic perspective, the Cushite family belongs to a vast stock of languages and peoples considered Afro-Asiatic. Afro-Asiatic languages in turn include Cushitic (principally Somali, Oromo, and Afar), the Hausa language of Nigeria, and the Semitic languages of Arabic, Hebrew, and Amharic. Medieval Arabs referred to the Eastern Cushites as the Berberi. In addition to the Somalis, the Cushites include the largely nomadic Afar (Danakil), who straddle the Great Rift Valley between Ethiopia and Djibouti; the Oromo, who have played such a large role in Ethiopian history and in the 1990s constituted roughly one-half of the Ethiopian population and were also numerous in northern Kenya; the Reendille (Rendilli) of Kenya; and the Aweera (Boni) along the Lamu coast in Kenya. The Somalis belong to a subbranch of the Cushites, the Omo-Tana group, whose languages are almost mutually intelligible. The original home of the Omo-Tana group appears to have been on the Omo and Tana rivers, in an area extending from Lake Turkana in present-day northern Kenya to the Indian Ocean coast.

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