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         Solar Photovoltaic Energy:     more books (100)
  1. 21st Century Solar Energy, Solar Power, Solar Cells, Photovoltaic (PV), Solar Thermal Electric Technologies, Research Plans and Programs: Series on Renewable ... Bioenergy, and Biobased Products (Ringbound) by U.S. Government, 2005-03-05
  2. Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics (Series on Photoconversion of Solar Energy, Volume 1)
  3. 2007-2008 Solar Energy - Complete Guide to Solar Power and Photovoltaics, Practical Information on Heating, Lighting, and Concentrating, Energy Department Research (Two CD-ROM Set) by U.S. Government, 2007-03-23
  4. 2007-2008 Solar Energy - Complete Guide to Solar Power and Photovoltaics, Practical Information on Heating, Lighting, and Concentrating, Energy Department Research, Grants (Two CD-ROM Set) by U.S. Government, 2008-01-23
  5. 1985 The Spec Guide: Energy Products Specifications Conservation, Solar, Wind and Photovoltaics
  6. 2008 Solar Power! Photovoltaics, Solar Cells, Roof Panels, Heating, Lighting, Concentrating - Complete Guide with Practical Information and Government Research (Two CD-ROM Set) by Department of Energy, 2008-01-23
  7. Methodology and definition of solar photovoltaic planning regions (Energy Laboratory report) by Richard D Tabors, 1978
  8. A description of the University of Texas at Arlington solar energy research facility: Photovoltaic/thermal residential system (COO-4577-5) by Ghazi Darkazalli, 1979
  9. Performance characteristics of a combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter (SuDoc NAS 1.15:89908) by Donald L. Chubb,
  10. Sunlight to Electricity: Prospects for Solar Energy Conversion by Photovoltaics by Joseph A. Merrigan, 1975
  11. Sunlight to Electricity: Prospects for Solar Energy Conversion by Photovoltaics by Joseph A. Merrigan, 1980
  12. Irrigation using solar energy, combination of drip irrigation and photovoltaic pump systems (Translation / Bureau of Reclamation) by Edzard Hafner, 1992
  13. Performance of Solar Energy Converters: Thermal Collectors and Photovoltaic Cells by Giogio Beghi, 1983
  14. Evaluation of flat-plate photovoltaic/thermal hybrid systems for solar energy utilization / John W. Andrews by John W Andrews, 1981

101. Solar Photovoltaic
The solar photovoltaic web page provides information and data on the solar photovoltaic Office of energy Efficiency and Renewable energy photovoltaics
Home Renewables Solar Photovoltaic

Solar  Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic devices use semiconducting materials to convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar radiation, which is nearly constant outside the Earth's atmosphere, varies with changing atmospheric conditions (clouds and dust) and the changing position of the Earth relative to the sun. Nevertheless, almost all U.S. regions have useful solar resources that can be accessed.
Photovoltaic system in a home and home business.
Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Photographic Information Exchange.
: Photovoltaic Module and Cell Manufacturing Activities
This section provides information and data received on Form EIA-63A/B , Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey. For the Latest Data on Photovoltaic Cells and Modules
  • Table 5a -1989-1999, Historical Renewable Energy Consumption by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source Table 5b -2000-2004, Historical Renewable Energy Consumption by Energy Use Sector and Energy Source

102. BFRL: NIST's Solar Photovoltaic System
A portion of the energy used at the NIST campus in Gaithersburg, A solar photovoltaic system is being installed on the roof that connects the main
Building Environment Division
NIST’s Solar Photovoltaic System
A portion of the energy used at the NIST campus in Gaithersburg, MD is being provided by renewable energy. A solar photovoltaic system is being installed on the roof that connects the main Administration Building to its adjoining conference and cafeteria facilities. The solar system will reduce the quantity of electricity purchased to power the NIST campus and reduce the monthly peak demand charges. The system consists of 234 photovoltaic modules and associated electronics. Each module, containing 72 monocrystalline photovoltaic cells, produces up to 4.8 amps of direct current electricity at 34 volts under ideal solar conditions. The individual modules are interconnected with the resulting electrical output converted to alternating current by means of an inverter. The system will power the lights in four floors of the Administration Building, approximately 600 lights. Extruded polystyrene insulation panels, on which the modules are mounted, provide additional roof insulation reducing the heating and cooling loads to the building. The system is projected to generate approximately 33,000 kilowatt hours of electricity on an annual basis, enough energy to meet the total electrical needs of three to four average residences. During nighttime conditions, the building receives all of its electrical power from the local utility in a normal manner. No batteries are used in this grid-interconnected system.

103. Building Environment Division - Heat Transfer Group - Florida Solar Energy Cente
solar photovoltaic WATER HEATING SYSTEM FLORIDA solar energy CENTER. A singletank, solar photovoltaic hot water system is presently being evaluated at the
A single-tank, solar photovoltaic hot water system is presently being evaluated at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). The system uses an array of photovoltaic cells (pictured at right) to convert sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity. The electricity generated by the photovoltaic cells depends mainly on the solar intensity and the connected load that uses the electricity. This connected load must change as the solar intensity changes in order to maximize the efficiency of the sunlight-to-electricity conversion process. In the single-tank solar hot water system, combinations of three, microprocessor-controlled heating elements are used to provide the changeable load. The electricity generated by the array is supplied to a storage tank by means of conventional house wiring. The flow of electricity is regulated by a microprocessor-based controller that monitors the solar intensity, exercises the efficiency-maximizing control logic, and connects the appropriate resistive elements. A single solar cell that is mounted with the array provides the controller a signal that is proportional to the solar intensity. Beginning with a conventional electric water heater, the controller is mounted on the tank's exterior (see adjacent photograph). The tank's lower heating element is replaced with an assembly having three heating elements. These three elements heat the entire tank using the electricity generated by the photovoltaic array. The upper part of the tank contains a heating element that is connected to the electric utility grid. This upper element insures the availability of hot water during poor solar conditions and its use, in general, avoids having to oversize the photovoltaic array. A computer data acquisition system is used to impose hot water draws and to monitor overall system performance (e.g., energy inputs, energy outputs, solar irradiance, several air and water temperatures). Testing of the single-tank system will continue until the Spring of 1999. The project is the result of a cooperative effort between FSEC and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

photovoltaic energy AND SUSTAINABLE DWELLING PERFORMANCE, ECONOMICS, This study investigated the application of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in
PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DWELLING: PERFORMANCE, ECONOMICS, AND USER ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES: The study will investigate the performance, economics and user-related issues ofphotovoltaic (PV) energy as applied in residential dwellings. The study will address the following objectives: (1) monitor the performance of solar photovoltaic cell panels in producing electricity in the Garrett House - residential test facility located on the university campus; (2) study human-system interaction of occupants with the solar photovoltaic system installed in the Garrett House; (3) survey owners of houses that have installed solar photovoltaic systems to learn their experiences with its use, their reported economics and energy efficiency of the system; and (4) conduct an economic analysis of solar photovoltaic systems for housing in North Carolina. APPROACH: The procedure for conducted the study involves a case-study approach as well as a state-wide consumer survey. The case study will use a campus residential test facility to study the performance of Amorphous and Crystalline modules in providing the dwelling electricity needs as well as to study the human interaction and human factors in the maintenance and use of PV systems in residences. The consumer survey will involve all known owners of photovoltaic systems installed in their homes to determine their experiences concerning their PV system including the required care and maintenance of the system, user evaluation of the system performance, household energy use patterns as related to the PV system; economics of their system, and general satisfaction with that system. Approximately 120 owners will be contacted to participate with an expected response rate of 45 percent.

105. Renewable Energy Commercialisation In Australia - Solar Photovoltaic Projects -
CitiPower s offer to its customers of a subsidised rooftop photovoltaic power system that eliminates the need for batteries to store the solar energy.
  • Skip Navigation Search Contacts About us ... Projects More topics Select another topic Select another topic About the AGO Emissions monitoring Government International activities Natural resources HOME Top 05 SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS Contents Previous Next
    Citipower's 100 rooftops photovoltaic program
    CitiPower's offer to its customers of a subsidised rooftop photovoltaic power system will help promote Australia's renewable energy industry. One of Victoria's major retail energy providers, CitiPower, is installing a rooftop-based photovoltaic (or solar generated) system across Melbourne under its 100 Rooftops program. The project was awarded a $60,000 grant by the AGO under its Renewable Energy Industry Program which aims to encourage the development of an internationally competitive, Australian renewable energy industry that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions. CitiPower has used the grant to offer its customers a subsidy for the photovoltaic system. The company believes that more affordable residential solar generation will boost consumer awareness of the benefits of accessing renewable energy. In addition to the AGO rebate, CitiPower is offering customers the chance to save 35 per cent off the normal costs of installing the systems. To date, customers have been saving anywhere between $6,500 and $17,500, depending on the system and its capacity. As the systems have an anticipated 30-year life and can save the householder as much as $250 per annum on power bills, the scheme is attracting considerable interest.

106. Pacific Energy Company's Photovoltaic Energy Page
Pacific energy Companys photovoltaic energy Page Alter Your energy with solar energy Equipment and Wood stoves,Fireplaces From Pacific energy Company.
Solar Electric
Welcome Home Power Designer We would like to introduce you to a sampling of our full line of Photovoltaic and remote power systems. From simple battery chargers to whole house power systems. Our staff is available to help you design a system that meets your needs for today and tomorrow. Recent changes in both technology and utility regulation is now providing pure sine wave inverters for every day use. Are you a California Pacific Gas and Electric Co. customer? Take advantage of the state of California programs to help you pay for your equipment! The Emerging Renewables Program from the California Energy Commission provides rebates to consumers who install qualifying renewable energy systems. Your financial incentive may vary according to the system size, technology and installation method. You can also apply for the Solar Energy System Tax Credit, it can be used by taxpayers against their net tax in an amount equal to the lesser of 15 percent of the cost paid for the purchase and installation of a solar. Click Here to learn how "

107. CETC-Varennes Canada's First Vertically Integrated Solar Photovoltaic Manufactur
Canada’s First Vertically Integrated solar photovoltaic Manufacturing Facility ATS’s interest in solar energy began in 1993 when ATS was the principal
Centre Overview Buildings Industrial Processes Clean Power ... News Search
Related sites Choose Below RETScreen CETC-Ottawa CETC-Devon
Clean Power Canada's First Vertically Integrated Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing Facility Opens in Cambridge Ontario: New Spheral Solar™ Technology
On June 23 th , 2004, ATS Automation Tooling Systems Inc. opened Canada’s first full-scale 20-megawatt solar cell manufacturing line and unveiled its revolutionary new photovoltaic technology that will be produced from its highly automated Spheral Solar™ Power (SSP) plant - a 193,000 square feet facility located in south-western Ontario city of Cambridge.
Canadian-based ATS is a world leading industrial automation company with 3,500%nbsp;employees and 26 facilities in Canada, United States, Europe and Asia-Pacific, dedicated to designing and manufacturing advanced factory automation systems, custom automation equipment, standard automation products and turn-key assembly machinery, as well as high-volume precision components, sub-assemblies, solar cells and solar modules.
ATS’s interest in solar energy began in 1993 when ATS was the principal supplier of equipment to the Spheral Solar™ Division of Texas Instrument. In 1997, ATS acquired both Photowatt International of France (10

108. World's Largest Solar Photovoltaic System Dedicated
Bavaria solarpark was financed by the solar energy Fund Bavaria, affirmed in his speech that “photovoltaic energy is the most intelligent energy
Home Company Press Releases
  • Press Releases Archive:
World's Largest Solar Photovoltaic System Dedicated
PowerLight Corporation, Deutsche Structured Finance, and Project Partners Celebrate Dedication of the World's Largest Solar Project in Bavaria, Germany
Muehlhausen, JUNE 30, 2005 - Bavaria Solarpark, the world's largest solar electric system, was dedicated on June 30th in Muehlhausen, Germany. The project is fully constructed and operational with a total of 10 MW of power capacity and consists of three solar parks - in Muehlhausen, Guenching, and Minihof in Bavaria. With 6.3M in Muehlhausen and 1.9MW each in Guenching and Minihof, Bavaria Solarpark is comprised of a total of 57,600 photovoltaic panels.
PowerLight served as the turnkey solar power system provider, with overall responsibility for the project's development, design, construction, and service. The photovoltaic modules were produced by Sharp Electronics. Siemens AG provided all electrical construction and equipment, such as inverters. The solar power plant was built on fallow fields formerly used for agricultural purposes. The area, however, still provides ecological benefits; herds of Moorland sheep graze the pastures and keep the grass short under the solar electric panels and extensive vegetation areas were planted to enhance the integration of the project site into the surroundings.
Bavaria Solarpark was financed by the Solar Energy Fund Bavaria, a closed fund from which private investors can currently still obtain shares. Under the German Renewable Energy Law (EEG), the fund benefits from a legally fixed payment for the produced power.

109. Renewable Energy Systems Explorer | How Solar Energy Works
solar photovoltaic cells convert solar radiation into electricity of the amount of electrical energy produced by the solar photovoltaic system and sends
MTC Home Renewable Energy Trust Energy Information Search ... Contact Us
Systems Explorer
  • Home Explore Systems Learn Support ... Learn Follow the path of solar energy from the Sun to your world: The Sun produces radiant energy by consuming hydrogen in nuclear fusion reactions. Solar energy is transmitted to the earth in portions of energy called photons , which interact with the earth's atmosphere and surface. It takes about 8 minutes and 20 seconds for the sun's energy to reach the earth. The Earth receives and collects solar energy in the atmosphere, oceans, and plant life. Interactions between the sun's energy, the oceans, and the atmosphere, for example, create winds, which can produce electricity when directed through aerodynamically designed wind machines. Solar photovoltaic cells convert solar radiation into electricity ( photovoltaic literally means "light energy"; "photo" = light, "voltaic" = energy). Individual cells are packaged into modules , like the one shown at the right; groups of modules are called

110. Energy Glossary: Technologies / Fuels
Each system uses a different method for collecting solar energy. solar photovoltaic array A series of PV panels can be connected to each other to form
MTC Home John Adams Innovation Institute Renewable Energy Trust Energy Information ... Contact

Energy Trust
Glossary: Technologies / Fuels
Definitions of clean and renewable technologies and fuels, as well as fossil fuels.
Anaerobic digestor gas: Anaerobic digestion is the breakdown of organic material without the use of oxygen (as opposed to aerobic digestion). When anaerobic digestion occurs, it produces gas that can be used to generate energy. The creation of landfill gas is a common form of anaerobic digestion. Bioenergy: Energy or electricity produced using biomass as a fuel. Biodiesel: Biodiesel is a type of biofuel made by combining animal fat or vegetable oil (such as soybean oil or recycled restaurant grease) with alcohol and can be directly substituted for diesel as a stand-alone fuel (called B100, for 100% biodiesel) or be used as an additive (called B20, for 20% bio-diesel). Biodiesel can be used in vehicles (newer cars, usually 1994 or later, are required for B100) and is beginning to be used in on-site electricity generation and heating applications. Biofuel: Biomass: A type of renewable fuels that includes trees and other crops and residues, solid waste, sewage, and liquid fuels derived from agricultural products. Some of the common energy sources derived from biomass are landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, methane, and biofuels including biodiesel, bio-oil, and ethanol. Biomass gasification is an emerging clean energy technology. See the

111. RIREF
To find out more about rebates for solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy a renewable energy system – The Fund provides support for solar photovoltaic
R.I. Government Agencies Search -About the Fund- Overview Advisory Board Fund Guidelines (PDF) Updates and Minutes Contact Strategic Plan -Fund Programs- Overview Outreach and Education Voluntary Market Supply Requests for Proposals -News and Events- News Events Policy Issues -Clean Energy Information- What is Clean Energy? Using Clean Energy Info, Resources, Links Reports and Publications Clean Energy Facts
Site Map

The Advisory Board to the Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund meets monthly on the second Tuesday of the month from 9:30 to 12:30 in Conference Room A, 2nd Floor, One Capitol Hill in Providence (in the same building as the Rhode Island State Energy Office.) Meetings are open to the public but to ensure enough available seating, please notify Janice McClanaghan of your plans to attend by emailing: Residences Installing a renewable energy system To find out more about rebates for solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy system installations for homes and small businesses, click here , or visit the RI State Energy Office's Million Solar Roofs Initiative page Choosing clean electricity Homeowners and small businesses can choose a clean energy product from any of the four companies doing business in Rhode Island, without leaving your electric utility. Visit

112. ABC Solar Incorporated - 1-866-40-SOLAR - The Brand Leader In Residential And Co
Photovoltiac solar Electricity for home and commercial use, featuring Sharp solar, Shell solar, BP solar, SMA America, Uniraq and the best mounting team in
ABC Solar Incorporated 1-866-40-SOLAR
Solar Electric Systems
Solar Hot Tubs About ABC Solar ... Request Information
ABC Solar Incorporated 1-866-40-SOLAR

113. Modular Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Homes
Heating your house with Passive solar energy is much simpler than one might imagine. Generating electricity with the photovoltaic Cells is becoming more
Fully Independent Residential Solar Technology, Inc
A not-for-profit organization
How to heat and power an energy efficient home with the sun's rays.
    Heating your house with Passive Solar energy is much simpler than one might imagine. All it takes is understanding the house site, shape, orientation, window placement, and absorbtion/storage of the sun's radiant heat. Generating electricity with the Photovoltaic Cells is becoming more widespread with improved technology and reduced costs. Energy Efficiency should always be a design goal, as the cost of the heating and cooling investment as well as the operational expenses can be significantly reduced through the lessening of the energy demand of the household. Combining solar features into the design of a house results in an integrated solar home
How does one find or build an integrated solar home
66 Snydertown Rd.
Hopewell, NJ 08525
If you have web page comments or suggestions, send us email at

114. Solar And Photovoltaic Energy
Information on solar energy panles for use in water heating and electricity generation (photovoltaic)
Argyll and Islands Enterprise Home Page enter text-only site accessibility sitemap ... Part of the HIE Network Search this site google Advanced search
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... Geothermal energy Solar Energy Community Websites
Argyll and the Islands Enterprise
How we can help you Strengthen your community ... Renewable Energy Solar Energy
Solar and Photovoltaic Energy
Solar panels trap the energy of the sun by converting the light falling on them to heat (solar water heating) or electricity (Photovoltaic or PV for short). These panels and modules come in a range of styles and construction techniques for different types of applications. Power from the Sun in Scotland?
Solar power is mostly associated with sunny climes. As anyone who has holidayed abroad will attest, solar panels are a feature of nearly every modern home in Spain, Cyprus and throughout the Mediterranean. Due to advances in this technology even through grey overcast skies solar panels or modules can still produce useful power. Scientists at the University of Strathcylde's Energy Systems Research Unit (ESRU) have calculated that each south facing roof in Scotland receives between 700-1100 kWh per sq metre each year. Given that almost 70% of domestic energy consumption goes to heating water solar water heating, if widely adopted, could dramatically decrease the CO2 emissions from oil, gas and electricity production by displacing a significant proportion of these fuels.
Solar Power Systems
Photovoltaic Solar Roof Tiles

115. Solar And Renewable Energy Products: Solar Power, Wind Power, Alternative Energy
A directory of solar and renewable energy companies and products. SUN WATT photovoltaic Modules To Power Products Directly From The Sun

116. CALSEIA: California Solar Energy Industries Association
CALSEIA California solar energy Industry Association Official Website. Commercial photovoltaic System. Residential solar photovoltaic System




Discussion Board


Contribute to Solar Industry Political Action Committee

Solar Links
Rebates/Incentives ... Officers Government Affairs California Assembly Members California Senate Members ... Contact Us
Welcome To CAL SEIA
Cal ifornia S olar E nergy I ndustries A ssociation supports the widespread adoption of solar thermal and photovoltaic systems by educating consumers, supporting solar legislation and conducting business in a professional and ethical manner. Click Here to Join CALSEIA Solar Domestic Water System Commercial Photovoltaic System Residential Solar Photovoltaic System CALSEIA's Proposed 10 Year Declining Rebate Schedule CALSEIA's Projected Benefits Table (requires MSPowerPoint) An Explanation of Public Goods Charges and PV Funding in California Diagram Showing Funding Reallocations for the Renewable Energy Program ... Member Entrance Here you will find information about: Consumer Center Here you will find information about: CAL SEIA's Code of Ethics Rebates and Incentives Members Officers ... Joining CAL SEIA access to Conference Calls Finding a Local Solar Contractor and our Document Archive and Consumer Advice Photos courtesy of SunEarth, PowerLight and Akeena Solar

117. SDF’s Solar PV Grant Program
but the photovoltaic systems must be in the PECO energy service territory. Have a solar photovoltaic system that is sized between 1 kW and 5 kW (nominal
An Important Notice about the Funding of the SDF Solar PV Grant Program The SDF Solar PV Grant Program is nearing the end of its initial $4 million allocation of funding. The program remains open for business, but potential applicants need to understand that the currently-available budget is dwindling. The program continues to accept applications, but the program staff is implementing several program changes in response to the funding situation. Read full notice... SDF’s Solar PV Grant Program provides grants to homeowners and businesses that purchase and install solar photovoltaic systems to generate electricity. Often called "solar electricity," photovoltaics (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. The technology is an attractive alternative to conventional sources of electricity for many reasons:
  • they are non-polluting and renewable; they have no moving parts and therefore are extremely reliable, silent, and very low maintenance; they require no special training to operate; and

118. China New Energy
Of the New and Renewable energy in China. solar energy photovoltaic Technology. Research and Development of Highefficient Low-cost solar Cells

119. SD : Environment : Solar Photovoltaics For Sustainable Agriculture And Rural Dev
solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have shown their potential in rural Green, Dr. JM, 1999; An Audit of energy Usage (Incl solar (PV) Systems) in a Non
Posted September 2000
New FAO publication
Solar photovoltaics for sustainable agriculture and rural development
Also available in Spanish by
B. van Campen, D. Guidi and G. Best
Environment and Natural Resources Working Paper No. 2
76 pp., 21 tables, 10 text boxes, 6 annexes
FAO, Rome, 2000 For more information, contact:

Senior Energy Coordinator

Rural Energy Development Officer
Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have shown their potential in rural electrification projects around the world, especially concerning Solar Home Systems. With continuing price decreases of PV systems, other applications are becoming economically attractive and growing experience is gained with the use of PV in such areas as social and communal services, agriculture and other productive activities, which can have a significant impact on rural development. There is still a lack of information, however, on the potential and limitations of such PV applications. The main aim of this study is, therefore, to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact and of the limitations of PV systems on sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD), especially concerning income-generating activities. It is, in fact, of paramount importance to identify the potential contribution of PV to rural development in order to gain further financial and political commitment for PV projects and programmes and to design appropriate PV projects. One of the main lessons learnt through this study is that success of PV programmes is significantly enhanced when an integrated strategy is followed. Solar photovoltaic systems, through their flexibility in use, offer unique chances for the energy sector to provide "packages" of energy services to remote rural areas such as for rural health care, education, communication, agriculture, lighting and water supply. It is hoped that this document contributes to the generation of ideas and discussions among the different institutions involved in providing these services to rural areas and thereby to an "informed" decision on the PV technology option.

120. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity: Glossary
solar photovoltaic electricity Glossary. Final annual yield Total photovoltaic energy delivered to the load during one year per kilowatt of power
Last updated: 4 April 2002
  • Alternating current (a.c.) : Electric current in which the direction of the flow is reversed at frequent intervals, 100 times per second in Europe (50 cycles per second) and 120 times per second in the USA. Opposite of a.c. is direct current (d.c.).
  • Balance of systems (BOS) : The parts of the photovoltaic system other than the PV array: switches, controls, meters, power-conditioning equipment, supporting structure for the array and storage components, if any. The cost of land is sometimes included when comparing total system cost with the cost of other energy sources.
  • Battery : For off-grid systems a battery is used to provide energy storage. Nearly all batteries used for PV systems are of the lead-acid type (with a small quantity of antimony to reduce self-discharge). Nickel-cadmium batteries are also suitable and have the advantage that they cannot be overcharged or discharged, but are considerably more expensive. All PV batteries are deep-cycle i.e. designed to be discharged down to 50% or more without damage so that they can supply power over a long period of time (in contrast to a car battery, for example, which is usually only discharged down to 3 to 5 %).
    The lifetime of a battery varies depending on factors such as how it is used, how it is maintained and charged, and temperature, but is typically between 5 and 10 years.

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