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61. Unisa Online - Writers
as the sole target has wellnigh killed our indigenous literatures. You needonly see the relative difference between the works of Tiyo soga, Mqhayi,

EBALL = Electronic Bibliography for african Languages and Linguistics. The peoples of the Happy Valley (East africa) the aboriginal races of Kondoa
Electronic Bibliography for African Languages and Linguistics (EBALL) HADZA BIBLIOGRAPHY Ambrose, Stanley H[armon]. 1982.
Archaeology and linguistic reconstructions of history in East Africa
Anon. 1942.
Tribal map and ethnographic map of Tanganyika Territory . Department of Lands and Mines (Tanganyika). Dar es Salaam.
Anon. 1952.
Tanganyika Territory: tribal and ethnographic map . Revised edition. Department of Lands and Mines (Tanganyika). Dar es Salaam.
Anon. 1955.
Tribal and ethnographic map . Compiled from information supplied by Senior Sociologist. Dar es Salaam.
Bagshawe, F. J. 1923.
Rock paintings of the Kangeju Bushman . Man, 23, pp 146-147 (no 92).
Bagshawe, F. J. 1925. The peoples of the Happy Valley (East Africa): the aboriginal races of Kondoa Irangi. Part 2: the Kangeju . Journal of the African Society, 24 (94), pp 117-130. Bagshawe, F. J. 1925. The peoples of the Happy Valley (East Africa) [with an introduction by Sir Harry H. Johnston] . Journal of the African Society, 24 (95), pp 25-33. Johnston's introduction covers pages 25-26.

63. LOUIS COLLINS BOOKS ABAA: Search Results For Africa
africa Her History, Lands and People Told With Pictures. WILIAMS (John A.) . indigenous african Architecture w/ English translation by Sigrid MacRae.
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64. UNESCO World Languages Survey
The People of South africa. Population census, 1996. Report No. It is one ofthe indigenous languages of South africa with seven dialects.
UNESCO World Languages Survey Prepared by the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology
September 2000 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background Executive Summary
Part I: Official Languages of South Africa:
Afrikaans English IsiNdebele IsiXhosa IsiZulu Sepedi Sesotho Setswana SiSwati Tshivenda XiTsonga
Part II: Other languages
!Xû (Kung) Khwedam (Khwe) Khoekhoegowap (Nama)
Background This report grew out of UNESCO’s request to the National Language Service to participate in the UNESCO World Languages Report by gathering information on the languages of South Africa. The UNESCO World Languages Report document grew out of the International Seminar, LINGUAPAX, on Linguistic Policies, held in Leioa (Basque Country) in 1996, during which the Director-General of UNESCO raised the question on the need for research into the current state of the languages of the world which could explain the problems that affect languages in the different regions. The objectives of the World Languages Report were approved at the UNESCO General Conference of 1997. This report has three basic aims:
  • It seeks to provide a complete documented register of all the languages that exist throughout the world. To this end, worldwide research will collect all the data possible on the different languages so as to establish a database on the world’s linguistic heritage;

65. H-Net Review: Tolly Bradford On Lovedale--Coercive Agency: Power And Resistance
He suggests that although the indigenous personality and traditional lifestyle of Robert HW Shepherd, Lovedale South africa The Story of a Century,

66. Uganda - SOCIETY
Traditional soga society consisted of a number of small kingdoms not united African business people were unable to compete with Asians in many areas of
Uganda - SOCIETY
Uganda - The Society and Its Environment
Uganda UGANDA'S RIFT VALLEY foundation provides the country with an alluvial plateau and plentiful lakes and rivers. Mountain peaks mark geological fault lines along its eastern and western boundaries and provide cooler temperatures and ample rainfall. This environment was peopled by successive waves of immigrants, some of whom displaced indigenous hunting societies during the first millennium A.D. Most of the newcomers eventually settled in the region that would become southern Uganda, and their evolving political and cultural diversity contributed to conflicts that flared up over several centuries. These enmities still simmered in the twentieth century, but none of them seriously derailed the modernization process that was occurring in Uganda as it approached independence in 1962. Some local beliefs reinforced the process of acculturation, emphasizing patronage as a means of advancement and valuing education as a necessary step toward that advancement. British educational systems and world religions were readily accepted in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The focus of modernization was clearly in Buganda, however, and during the decades after independence, national progress toward modernization slowed as the nation's non-Baganda majority attempted to adjust this balance in their favor. Military rulea precarious alternative to dominance by the Bagandafailed to implant a sense of nationhood because the notion of government as a mechanism for expropriating wealth was merely replaced by that of government as a brutalizing force.

and heroines of our people as Tiyo soga, Nehemiah Tile, Mangena Mokone, This African church gathered here today, the Ethiopian Episcopal Church,
Port Elizabeth, January 11, 2000 Your Grace, the Rt Rev Sigqibo Dwane,
Leaders and members of the Ethiopian Episcopal Church,
Brothers and Sisters,
Ladies and gentlemen: Twenty years ago, in 1980, the late President of the African National Congress, Oliver Tambo, addressed the World Consultation of the World Council of Churches which was held in Holland. In his statement he quoted parts of Verses 27 and 28 of Chapter 1 of the Book of Genesis . With your permission, I would like to present these verses in full. 27: " So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." 28: " And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth." Had he been alive, Oliver Tambo would have drawn great strength and inspiration from your " Declaration of the faith of this church " adopted at your Special Conference last year when you yourselves, true to the Holy Scriptures, said:

68. Women And The African National Congress: 1912-1943
Though the expectations of the African people had been repeatedly frustrated Mina soga was a founding member of the NCAW and its first Secretary General
Women and the African National Congress: 1912-1943
by Frene Ginwala
For the first 30 years of the its existence, the exclusion of women from full membership in the Constitution of the South African Native National Convention (SANNC/ANC), contrasted with the participation of women in the deliberations, decision making and campaigns of the organisation, (though not in the leadership). This apparent contradiction arose from the reality of African women's involvement in resistance and the peculiar structure of the ANC, which allowed for ways in which women could participate. The exclusion of women was not surprising nor exceptional for the time. The societies from which the white settlers originated and the indigenous societies they encountered in South Africa were male dominated and patriarchal. In 1912, throughout South Africa government and politics were generally seen as the terrain of men, and all women, black and white were denied the right to vote. That women were excluded from membership of the major political organisation of the African people was to be expected: the more so, as the formation of the SANNC was intended to unite the African people, and constructed to express an alliance between the traditional rulers, the educated petty bourgeoisie and aspirant middle class. The absence of women from political institutions does not necessarily lead to their absence in the political arena. The ways in which women worked with and in the ANC is complex, and it is not correct to say, that the exclusion of full membership "...laid the basis of the ANC's treatment of women for the next twenty five years, as a separate category of members outside of the scope of its regular activities." (Walker, 1982)

69. 8 Pan Africanism
the term ‘panAfrican’ was a way of drawing the link between all people with an Tiyo soga sometimes stayed at hotels in the 1860s, but that became
Wallace G. Mills Hist. 317 8 Pan-Africanism African Responses to Colonialism
- colonialism was the result of European intrusion and conquest;
- but colonialism was never completely one-sided;
- relationships, however unequal, are nevertheless 2-sided; Europeans were never able to impose their will and view of things entirely.
- moreover, over time strengths and weaknesses of the sides alter, which means that relationships are rarely static and constantly need to be adjusted to accommodate changes.
N. B. Neither side was monolithic or completely united: anti-imperialists and critics existed in Europe; divisions existed on the African side also.
- also, imperialism happened at a high point in European power, confidence, arrogance, assertiveness and aggression.
- in the 20th C, Europe weakened and destroyed much of its power and wealth in 2 wars; the injuries were not only to economic and military power, but also to confidence, pride and the certainty of their own superiority. Therefore, the strength of the colonialists was steadily weakening.
- on the other hand, the responses and reactions of Africans were also changing the elements and strengths of the African side of the relationship.

70. Magic Safaris, Your African Adventure Travel Provider! - Discover Uganda
The birth rate was 49 per 1000 people and the death rate 19 per 1000. Traditional Ganda and soga men often wear a long white robe called a kanzu under a
More about Uganda, the Pearl of Africa...
  • Ethnicity and Language Religion Education Social Structure ... HISTORY
  • III. PEOPLE AND SOCIETY The 1991 Uganda census counted 16,671,705 people. By 1998 the population had grown to an estimated 22.2 million Ugandans, giving the country a population density of 92 per sq km (238 per sq mi). The estimated growth rate of the population in 1998 was 2.8 percent. The birth rate was 49 per 1,000 people and the death rate 19 per 1,000. Life expectancy at birth was 42.6 years. The fertility rate, the number of births per woman, was 7.1. Almost all Ugandans are black Africans. Foreign residents make up less than 4 percent of the population and come mostly from neighboring states. The population is concentrated in the south, particularly in the crescent at the edge of Lake Victoria and in the southwest. Uganda is predominantly rural with only 13 percent of the population living in urban areas. Kampala, near Lake Victoria, is Uganda's intellectual and business center and its only city. Jinja, the most important industrial center, is located on the Nile at Lake Victoria. The next largest towns are Mbale, Masaka, Mpigi, and Mbarara.
    A. Ethnicity and Language (

    71. Uganda-One Man's Perspective
    The British East africa Company was trading in Uganda at the end of the The people of Uganda began to feel different except his own tribe the Langi.
    Uganda Country Information (Uganda National Anthem) Uganda's Name The British Explorer who spent considerable time in Uganda trying to find the source of the Nile, which he did, recorded the following legend regarding the name Uganda. Many, many years ago there was a man who lived in Unyoro (a part of Uganda) whose name was Uganda. He was a poor man who hunted often in order to feed his family. He became so skilled and successful at hunting that he was able to also feed his neighbors and village. This caused him to rise in in stature and importance and Uganda was named Kimera, the first King of the Buganda Kingdom from which present Uganda gets its name. The Buganda tribe is still the largest in all of Uganda. Early Visitors and Settlers One has to go back a few years to find the earliest people to settle in Uganda, 50,000 years as archeologists have discovered in finding their tools in what is now Uganda. When one then reads that this part of Africa was discovered in the 19th century, one has to chuckle. What one could say is that "Europeans became aware of that part of the world, but for thousands of years others had been there. Various groups such as the Bunyoro, Ankole and Buganda people established kingdoms in the 14th to 16th Century. No outside contacts were made until the Arab Traders came from the island of Zanzibar and the Swhaili Coast (1830's) of present coast of Kenya and Tanzania made their way inland to Lake Victoria to trade items such as guns, cloth for ivory. Later that included the horrendous slave trade of whole villages that headed toward places in the East and also South America.

    72. Using Children In Armed Conflict: A Legitimate African Tradition?
    The fact that a culture is not truly indigenous, however, does not necessarily imply 10 Article 22 of the African Charter on Human and People¹s Rights.
    USING CHILDREN IN ARMED CONFLICT: A LEGITIMATE AFRICAN TRADITION ? CRIMINALISING RECRUITMENT OF CHILD SOLDIERS, By TW Bennet Preface Using Children in Armed Conflict: A Legitimate African Tradition? Culture, Tradition and Human Rights Age Grades and Age Sets Military Action and Socio-Political Structures Age Sets in the Zulu Kingdom Age Sets Under Colonial Rule The Definition of Childhood The Consequences of Violating Children¹s Rights Criminalising the Recruitment of Child Soldiers The Nature of the Problem Existing Protections Under Humanitarian Law International Human Rights Law Problems of Enforcement Conclusion: Taking Stock PREFACE "On the eve of the new millennium we are witnessing an abomination ‹ an abomination directed against children in the context of armed conflict." Olara Otunno, Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict, United Nations, speaking at the UN Security Council, July 1998. ABOUT THIS MONOGRAPH: We selected under-researched topics for our current series of monographs, trusting that they will help in defining mechanisms for stopping the practice of using children in and for war. We are grateful for eminent legal scholar, Professor Tom Bennett¹s contribution, which we believe brings a fresh and critical look at the historical, anthropological and legal aspect of child warriors in the African tradition. In his other work on criminalising recruitment of children in armed conflict, he makes no bones about the work that still needs to be done in this area. There is a crying need to provide a deterrent to war crimes against children and to see international justice in action. To this end ACT is calling for the establishment of a specialised international tribunal on War Crimes Against Children as a matter of the gravest urgency.

    73. Public Anthropology
    The African chief has a series of roles in the indigenous institutions of African His hypothesis is that the acculturation of indigenous people by
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    Ames, David. The Use of a Traditional Cloth-Money Token among the Wolof.
    American Anthropologist October, 1955 Vol. 57 ( 5):1016-1023. This article discusses the different uses of cloth money in different areas of Africa, mainly Gambia and Senegal . Cloth money was used before the 20 th century as both a ceremonial exchange, such as a form of dowry, as well as a "basic economic exchange" (1016). The author describes the process of weaving the cloth that was once used for creating the cloth money, but today is simply weaved for alternative purposes. Ames also describes the necessity that this cloth played in the Wolof society before Europeans. It was used in every aspect of society and was highly valued in return. He continues to describe how, although it may seem "foreign" to view money as an art object, it has and is still done in many societies. In western contexts sliver coin pieces are used in creating jewelry and in other African societies cowrie shells are used in divination as well as in decoration pieces. Separating "economic" objects and "art" objects is often a difficult process, because, too often, the lines are blurred. On the third page of the article, the author lays out a graph of how the cloth money was "measured" economically. The exchange rate between the cloth and "paper money" as well as a price listing of certain items, such as grain, cows, roosters, etc., and their monetary value was illustrated. Cloth money was not just used within the Wolof community, but was also used in external trade (1019). It could be used to buy materials in other areas, such as Serahuli, Fula, and Bambara. After the Europeans invaded

    74. MSN Encarta - Uganda
    About onesixth of Uganda’s people are Western Nilotic speakers living in the Traditional Ganda and soga men often wear a long white robe called a kanzu
    Web Search: Encarta Home ... Upgrade your Encarta Experience Search Encarta Upgrade your Encarta Experience Spend less time searching and more time learning. Learn more Tasks Related Items more... Further Reading Editors' picks for Uganda
    Search for books and more related to
    Uganda Facts and Figures Quick information and statistics for Uganda Encarta Search Search Encarta about Uganda Editors' Picks Great books about your topic, Uganda ... Click here Advertisement document.write(' Page 3 of 11
    Encyclopedia Article Multimedia 17 items Dynamic Map Map of Uganda Article Outline Introduction Land and Resources People and Society Arts ... History A
    Ethnicity and Language
    As a result of migration and intermarriage, most Ugandans have ancestors from a variety of Uganda’s 34 ethnic groups, although people customarily identify with just a single group. In centuries past ancestors of many of these groups came to Uganda from what is now Sudan and Ethiopia. Many of the languages presently used are not mutually intelligible. About two-thirds speak Bantu languages and live in the south, including the largest and wealthiest ethnic group, the Ganda, constituting 18.0 percent of the population, and the Nyankole (9.9 percent), Kiga (8.3 percent), and Soga (8.2 percent). About one-sixth of Uganda’s people are Western Nilotic speakers living in the north, such as the Langi (5.9 percent) and Acholi (4.4 percent). Another one-sixth speak an Eastern Nilotic language and live in the northeast, including the Iteso (6.0 percent) and Karamojong (2.1 percent). Finally, in the extreme northwest are speakers of Sudanic languages, including the Lugbara (3.5 percent) and the Madi (1.1 percent). English is the official language of Uganda, though Swahili is more widely spoken and used as a

    75. MSN Encarta - Print Preview - Uganda
    The birth rate was 47 per 1000 people and the death rate 13 per 1000. Traditional Ganda and soga men often wear a long white robe called a kanzu under a
    Print Print Preview Uganda Article View On the File menu, click Print to print the information. Uganda III. People and Society The 1991 Uganda census counted 16,671,705 people. By 2005 the population had grown to an estimated 27.3 million Ugandans, giving the country a population density of 137 per sq km (354 per sq mi). The estimated growth rate of the population in 2005 was 3.3 percent. The birth rate was 47 per 1,000 people and the death rate 13 per 1,000. Life expectancy at birth was 51.6 years. The fertility rate, the number of births per woman, was 6.7. Almost all Ugandans are black Africans. Foreign residents make up less than 4 percent of the population and come mostly from neighboring states. The population is concentrated in the south, particularly in the crescent at the edge of Lake Victoria and in the southwest. Uganda is predominantly rural, with only 12 percent of the population living in urban areas. Kampala, near Lake Victoria, is Uganda’s intellectual and business center and its only city. Jinja, the most important industrial center, is located on the Nile at Lake Victoria. The next largest towns are Mbale, Masaka, Mpigi, and Mbarara. A.

    76. SSRC :: Global Security And Cooperation Program
    She provided the keynote intervention on African indigenous knowledge systemsIKS Equally the African people continued to utilize their traditions and

    77. Project MUSE
    In some cases, most notably that of Tiyo soga, the first ordained Xhosa In the verse that Dhlomo uses, by contrast, the people are not benighted and
    How Do I Get This Article? Athens Login
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    This article is available through Project MUSE, an electronic journals collection made available to subscribing libraries NOTE: Please do NOT contact Project MUSE for a login and password. See How Do I Get This Article? for more information.
    Login: Password: Your browser must have cookies turned on Wenzel, Jennifer "Voices of Spectral and Textual Ancestors: Reading Tiyo Soga alongside H. I. E. Dhlomo's The Girl Who Killed to Save"
    Research in African Literatures - Volume 36, Number 1, Spring 2005, pp. 51-73
    Indiana University Press

    The Xhosa missionary Tiyo Soga appears, but does not speak, in H. I. E. Dhlomo's play about the 1856-57 Xhosa cattle killing, The Girl Who Killed to Save: Nongqause the Liberator. Archival evidence demonstrates that an unattributed song in the play is from a hymn by Tiyo Soga.While this nexus may not constitute evidence of the "genuine intertextuality" that Malvern van Wyk Smith seeks in postapartheid literary historiography, I argue that the (perhaps unwitting) presence of a hymn by Tiyo Soga contributes to the profound ambivalence of Dhlomo's play, which is also evident in Dhlomo's negotiation of colonial accounts of the cattle killing. For writers borrowing the voices of their predecessors, citing or ventriloquizing textual ancestors is as precarious and productive a process as is claiming to hear the voice of literal ancestors for prophets like Nongqawuse. What kind of reading practice can attend to such revenant voices?

    78. Atlas - Uganda Map
    Uganda Map, History, Culture, People, Population, Climate, Economy, Uganda,landlocked republic, eastern africa, bordered on the north by the Republic
    People History Culture ... Communications Legal system Organization Provinces Disputes
    Uganda Plants and Animal Back to Top Uganda's main food crops have been plantains, cassava, sweet potatoes, millet, sorghum, corn, beans, and groundnuts. Major cash crops have been coffee, cotton, tea, and tobacco, although in the 1980s many farmers sold food crops to meet short-term expenses. The production of cotton, tea, and tobacco virtually collapsed during the late 1970s and early 1980s. In the late 1980s, the government was attempting to promote diversification in commercial agriculture that would lead to a mixture of nonorthodox exports. The Uganda Development Bank and several other institutions supplied credit to local farmers, although small farmers also received credit directly from the government through agricultural cooperatives. For most small farmers, the main source of short-term credit was the policy of allowing farmers to delay payments for seeds and other agricultural inputs provided by cooperatives. Uganda's beekeeping industry also suffered throughout the years of civil unrest. In the 1980s, the CARE Apiary Development Project assisted in rehabilitating the industry, and by 1987 more than fifty cooperatives and privately owned enterprises had become dealers in apiary products. More than 4,000 hives were in the field. In 1987 an around 797 tons of honey and 614 kilograms of beeswax were produced.

    79. The Santo Daime Religion
    John has done a lot to honor and preserve the indigenous teachings and the Brazilian religion has also been tremendously affected by African influences
    The Santo Daime Religion
    In this paper, the reader will be introduced to the sect of Santo Daime, a Brazilian religion which combines Christianity with the indigenous practice of using ayahuasca, a native entheogenic plant.

    80. Liberal Bible-Thumping
    angel handing out invitations to a divine dinner of the flesh of all people. work treating the sick in africa or fighting sex trafficking in Asia,
    Liberal Bible-Thumping
    Even aside from his arguments that Jesus and Mary Magdalene were married and that St. Paul was a self-hating gay, the new book by a former Episcopal bishop of Newark is explosive.

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