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21. Encyclopedia Of African History
Benue Valley peoples Jukun and Kwarafa; Historiography of africa; Macauley, Herbert; Literacy and indigenous Scripts Precolonial West africa.
(List is not final and is subject to change prior to publication.) A B C D ... Z
A Abaka, Edmund
. Department of History, University of Miami.
Asante Kingdom: Osei Tutu and Founding of; Collaboration as Resistance; Ghana (Republic of) (Gold Coast): Colonial Period: Economy; Ghana, Republic of: Revolution and Fourth Republic, 1981 to Present; Songhay Empire: Sonni Ali and the Founding of Empire; Songhay Empire: Ture, Muhammad and the Askiya dynasty Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye . Somali scholar, Ontario, Canada.
Abubakar, Tanimu . Department of History, University of Ahmadu Bello, Nigeria.
Literature, Western: Africa in Adejumobi, Saheed Adeyinka . Department of Africana Studies, Wayne State University, Michigan.
Awolowo, Obafemi; Community in African Society Adesina, Olutayo . Department of History, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Adhikari, Muhammed

22. GRAIN | Briefings | 2002 | Intellectual Property Rights I
According to a global coalition of indigenous people’s organisations, NGOs, and soga),” in Ethnographic Survey of africa East Central africa, Part.
Fixed width Low graphics Fight for rights Agricultural research QUICK LINKS HOME WHAT'S NEW SUBSCRIBE NEW from GRAIN BIO-IPR Semences... THE FIGHT FOR RIGHTS BIO-IPR BRL (legislation) TRIPS review TRIPS-plus Links AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOR WHOM? GM Contamination Hybrid rice Bt Cotton Growing Diversity Relevant links GRAIN PUBLICATIONS Briefings Against the grain Seedling Biodiversidad Semences de la biodiv New from GRAIN ABOUT GRAIN about the organisation about the programme Staff Email this page Feedback Copy and distribute About Privacy Lo-graphics version What's new? Publications About us Subscribe ... Intellectual Property Rights in African Agriculture: Implications for Small Farmers Print
Intellectual Property Rights in African Agriculture Implications for Small Farmers Devlin Kuyek August 2002 Download this GRAIN publication in PDF format (right hand click and "save target as...")
(includes all tables and graphics - use for printing) [See also Genetically Modified Crops in African Agriculture, August 2002] Contents 1. INTRODUCTION

23. Sacred Earth Newsletter - July 2005
africa s, Australia s and Southeast Asia s rainforests are facing the same Please Help Protect Peru s Isolated indigenous peoples and Their Habitats
Summer is finally here - but this year it seems to be passing me by. With my mind and hands pre-occupied with family matters there hardly ever seems to be a spare moment to sniff the flowers along the way. This is not how I usually live my life, but believe me, I am developing great empathy for those who are stuck in a 9-5 rut, with lives too busy to take a break. But it is also reminding me how important it is, especially at times such as these, when the minutes and hours are running away, dissolving like quicksand before our eyes, and days are filled with worry and tedium, to remember to take a break - a few moments out of our busy lives to recharge our batteries and connect with the things that nourish our spirit and soul.
And so I did - which is why this newsletter never went out when it was supposed to, at the summer solstice... Forgive me, but I just HAD to sneak away and dance with the fairies for a few days to recover, recharge, rejoice and remember some of the wonderful things about life... Well, here is to sniffing the flowers and enjoying the rest of the summer for all it has got in store.

24. Chapter One - Part One
Finally, in 1899, the GOJ passed the Hokkaido Former indigenous peoples Only after the soga clan was destroyed in the socalled Taika Reform of 645
latest archive links contents ... images
managing a wild horse with a rotten rope: a contemporary history of okinawa
Chapter One
Part One
Okinawa is the largest island in the Ryukyu retto (archipelago): a chain of more than 160 islands stretching the approximately 1300 kilometres between the southernmost tip of Kyushu (Japan) and Taiwan (Republic of China). Okinawa Island has a total land area of 1,199 square kilometres. Okinawa is also the name given to the fourth smallest administrative unit, or prefecture ( ken ), of the 47 that constitute the modern Japanese State. Okinawa Prefecture was formally established in 1879, and consists of some 70 of the Ryukyu Islands furthest from Kyushu. The remaining islands in the chain became part of Kagoshima Prefecture in the same year. Okinawa Prefecture may further be broken down into the three geographically dispersed island groups of Yaeyama, Miyako and Okinawa. The Yaeyama Island group, which includes Ishigaki, Yonaguni, Iriomote, and the Daioyu or Senkaku Islands, honto ) of Okinawa.

25. Using Children In Armed Conflict: A Legitimate African Tradtiion? - Using Childr
The fact that a culture is not truly indigenous, however, Previously, allthe peoples in South africa had regarded this custom as mandatory to
Using Children in Armed Conflict:
A Legitimate African Tradition?
Published in Monograph No 32: Using Children in Armed Conflict: A Legitimate African Tradition?, December 1998
Estimates of the number of children being exploited for military purposes are inevitably only approximations. Nonetheless, from studies conducted by the International NGOs Coalition in 24 countries worldwide, it appears that more than 300 000 children, both boys and girls, are being used as soldiers, saboteurs, spies, carriers, "wives" and general camp-followers.
Whether children enlisted of their own free will or were forcibly conscripted, their involvement in armed conflict presents quite obvious dangers. Not only are young people ill-equipped to cope with the physical dangers they encounter, but their immaturity poses an additional threat to the safety of other combatants. Although less obvious, the long-term social consequences are possibly even more harmful. Children taken from their families and communities are deprived of the normal processes of socialisation and education, and, when peace returns, there is little hope of veterans being successfully reintegrated into society. Instead, the child brutalised in its formative years is primed to perpetuate a cycle of killing and lawlessness. As a result, entire generations have been written off as "lost".
1 Culture, Tradition and Human Rights

26. Dictionary Of The Taino Language
This dictionary of words of the indigenous peoples of caribbean is from the Cordel o soga delgada, hecha de majagua o maguey. Las Casas (tv pig.
This dictionary of words of the indigenous peoples of caribbean is from the encyclopedia "Clásicos de Puerto Rico, second edition, publisher, Ediciones Latinoamericanas. S.A., 1972" It was compiled by Puerto Rican historian Dr. Cayetano Coll y Toste of the "Real Academia de la Historia." He describes as "vocabulario indo-antillano." It may possibly be the most comprehensive collection of Taino words ever compiled and it is well documented. For the purpose of clarification, Dr. Coll y Toste includes words which have been incorporated into language, but are not Taino. An example is Mabí, which is of African derivation.
I do not know if this encyclopedia is still in print, but I highly reccomend it. If it all can be obtained do it. Aside from the dictionary, Coll y Toste's writing is descriptive, well documened, and wonderful reading. The remainder of the encyclopedia, seven volumes in all, is a treasure of Puerto Rican history and culture.
If I may offer a word of advice. Please do not take this dictionary (or anyone else's work) as "Gospel." Though Dr. Coll y Toste does a fine job, as you will find, many times he disagrees with the findings of others who had previously documented these same words. Most of his disagreements center on spelling and pronunciation, not meaning.

27. Calvin Seminars In Christian Scholarship - Christian Scholarship... For What? -
Perhaps what is surprising is that indigenous people showed any interest inChristianity at all and Zaze soga, in AC Jordan, Tales From Southern africa,
Christian Scholarship . . . for What? An International, Interdisciplinary Conference September 27-29, 2001 Hosted by Seminars in Christian Scholarship Session: Christian Scholarship and Technology Work of Satan or Influence of the Spirit? Indigenous Prophets on the Mission Frontier Thor Wagstrom Calvin College John Philip, a Scottish missionary who oversaw the work of the London Missionary Society on the eastern frontier of the Cape Colony in southern Africa, recognized the potential for this kind of freedom of interpretation. As he warned an American protégé in 1833, When the power of religion is first felt in its quickening influence at a missionary station, the change is so marked that the individuals thus awakened are frequently the means of communicating what they have felt to others; but in persons of this description there is so much ignorance mixed with their new light, so much of the old leaven remaining, and the fancy is so much more powerful than the judgment, that they constantly stand in need of the teachers to watch over them…. Philip’s comment underlines the unsurprising fact that missionaries have jealously guarded their position as authoritative sources on Christian doctrine.

28. Provincial Synod: 1999
groups of vulnerable indigenous people almost to the point of their extinction . Tiyo soga speaks with and for africa when he says Thina ma Afrika
Archbishop's Charge Greeting My brothers of the House of Bishops, members of the House of Clergy and the House of Laity, distinguished guests and honoured representatives of sister churches, ladies and gentlemen; I greet and welcome you to this twenty-ninth session of the Provincial Synod. Grace and Peace to you all from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. THEME - JOURNEY TO WHOLENESS The theme of this session of Synod is Journey to Wholeness. It arises from God's invitation to all creation to discover its unity and wholeness in God. There is so much brokenness and woundedness in our communities. Many people carry scars from wounds inflicted by colonial rule of the nineteenth century, the past hundred years of racially structured economic, social and political policies, the breakdown of family life, lack of respect for the sanctity of human life and the destruction of the environment. There is a yearning for wholeness. As St Paul puts it in Romans 8:22: We are well aware that the whole creation, until this time, has been groaning in labour pains: And not only that, we too, who have the first-fruits of the spirit, even we are groaning inside ourselves, waiting for our bodies to be set free. This theme, "Journey to Wholeness" permeates every aspect of our work during this session of Synod, from our bible studies, to our worship; from the resolutions we will consider to the conference of synod planned for later this week. It will also be relevant for our work beyond this synod as we seek to co-operate with God in the fulfilment of God's mission in the world.

29. Africa And Europeans 1800-1875 By Sanderson Beck
Xhosa Tiyo soga was educated in Scotland, became a missionary, married a Scot, West African Countries and peoples by James Africanus Horton, p. 24.
BECK index
Africa and Europeans 1800-1875
Egypt of Muhammad 'Ali

North Africa and Europeans

Islam in Western Sudan
British and Boers in South Africa
This chapter has been published in the book
For information on ordering click here.
Egypt of Muhammad 'Ali
Not only commercial interests but France's conflict with England led the Directory to send Napoleon Bonaparte to Egypt in 1798. The general had been warned by the traveler Volney that if the French invaded Egypt, they would find themselves at war with the British, the Ottoman empire, and the Muslims. Napoleon gathered a force of 36,000 veterans and hundreds of civilian experts in 400 ships, which reached Alexandria just after Nelson's British fleet had left there. On July 2, 1798 a French army quickly stormed Alexandria and read Bonaparte's proclamation that he respected Islam, that he had destroyed the Pope and the bigoted Knights of Malta, and that they had come only to terminate the tyranny of the Mamluks. Murad Bey persuaded Ibrahim and Sa'id Abu Bekir Pasha that they should resist the French invasion; but in the battle by the pyramids the French killed about 2,000 Egyptians while only losing ten of their men. Murad fled south up the Nile to Upper Egypt, while Ibrahim and the Pasha deserted Cairo for Palestine. On the first of August, Nelson's squadron returned and destroyed the French fleet at Abuqir, leaving ships to blockade the harbor. Although Napoleon claimed to be acting on behalf of the Ottoman empire, the French did not even have an ambassador in Istanbul. The British had Spencer Smith there, and he formed a coalition with the Ottomans and Russia. On September 11 Sultan Selim III (r. 1789-1807) declared war on France.

The development of indigenous trade and markets in West africa. London. Paper from History of Central african peoples Conference, Lusaka.
PRECOLONIAL METALWORKING IN AFRICA : A BIBLIOGRAPHY. Originally compiled by Dr Tim Maggs and staff of the Natal Museum, Private Bag 9070, Pietermaritzburg 3200, South Africa. Maintained and updated by Dr Duncan Miller, Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. This version dated: 30 May 1998 June 1, 1998. The archaeology of Africa - food, metals and towns :750-833. London: Routledge) which contains numerous references not listed below. If you find this bibliography useful please cite it as a reference in publication as: Pre-colonial metalworking in Africa, especially southern Africa: a bibliography :1-67. Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town (African Studies Library). ABUKAKAR, N. 1992. Metallurgy in northern Nigeria: Zamfara metal industry in the 19th century. In Thomas-Emeagwali, G. ed Science and technology in African history with case studies from Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, and Zambia :55-78. Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press. ACKERMAN, D. 1983. Marale van groot argeologiese belang.

31. Cool Cleveland - The Source For News & Events In Cleveland, Ohio: Main.ReadersWr
one south of Gateway (let s call it soga), and lease it back to the city. africa, the Inuit (Eskimo) of Arctic Canada, the indigenous people of the
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Readers Write Looking for sponsors Face it, folks, most of you don't want to pay for Cool Cleveland. That means we need to find a few good underwriters to cover our costs. Send your ideas to , especially if they are Cleveland-based, progressive and cool. And for those who are willing to pay for issues, stay tuned for an upgraded Cool Cleveland that will make it worth your investment. May Show redux? Although no one is saying anything official, Director Katherine Lee Reid has confirmed that the Cleveland Museum of Art is finalizing plans to mount a juried exhibition every three or four years featuring art from NEOhio. Even the usually talkative Jeff Grove, curator of contemporary art, was uncharacteristically reticent, only saying details will be forthcoming. The new Museum regime (Museum insiders' term, not mine), symbolized by Grove and Reid, has taken huge strides in connecting the institution to contemporary and regional art recently (the video art exhibition Into The Light last year was a watershed). This regular exhibition of regional art, whatever it comes to be called (you can bet it won't be called

32. Uganda
Ethnic Ganda 18 per cent, Nyankole 10 per cent, Kiga 8 per cent, soga 8 per Many people follow traditional indigenous religions, which are rarely seen
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You are in: Nations Africa Uganda Basic facts The country
Capital: Kampala Area: 241,038 sq km; 93,065 sq miles Population: 23,451,687 (2000 Estimate) Urbanisation: Urban 13 per cent (1998 Estimate); Rural 87 per cent (1998 Estimate)
Exports: Coffee, cotton, tea, gold, fish, maize
Industry: Sugar, food processing, soft drinks, tobacco, cotton, textiles, cement
Agriculture: Cash crops: coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops: cassava, potatoes, maize, millet, pulses; livestock products: beef, goat meat, milk, poultry
Currency: 1 Ugandan shilling (USh), consisting of 100 cents
Natural resources: Copper, cobalt, limestone, salt, gold, tin, tungsten, hydroelectricity The people Ethnic: Ganda 18 per cent, Nyankole 10 per cent, Kiga 8 per cent, Soga 8 per cent, Iteso 6 per cent, Langi 6 per cent, Acholi 4 per cent, Other 40 per cent Language: English is the official language of Uganda. Swahili and Arabic are commonly used. Each ethnic group also has its own language. Luganda, a Bantu language and the language of the Ganda, is the most widely spoken of Uganda's indigenous languages. Nilo-Saharan and Sudanic languages are also spoken. Religion: Roughly 60 per cent of Uganda's inhabitants are Christian, half of these are Roman Catholic and half Protestant. Muslims make up a sizeable minority. Many people follow traditional indigenous religions, which are rarely seen as incompatible with Christianity or Islam. Often Ugandans' belief systems represent a fusion of traditional beliefs and elements of an imported religion.

33. The Table Of Nations And The Origin Of Races
Tribes in other parts of africa, Arabia and Asia, aboriginal groups in Australia, Known as fiercely independent peoples, they conquered the indigenous
The Table of Nations and the Origin of Races
by Tim Osterholm The history of the races of mankind is a fascinating subject. Biologically, a race is generally thought of as a variety, or subspecies, within a given species. All the races are a part of the human race. We have made the term race to apply to skin color, but the dictionary defines race as "a class or kind of individuals with common characteristics, interests, appearances, or habits as if derived from a common ancestor." Where did we come from? The answers have always been with us, as presented in the original Table of Nations. What you are about to read can best be described as an Exegesis (from the Greek exégesis, verb: exégetikos, meaning interpretation, guide, translation or critical exposition). Once you have read what is presented here, you may not view any race of people the same way again. Note that there is nothing like the Table of Nations (as presented here) in any other national tradition. Every other attempt to tell where the nations derived or where one nation derived, which comes from the time before Christ (B.C.), is hopelessly naive and filled with impossibilities and myths. There is nothing from the B.C. period that can remotely compare with this presentation as to accuracy and detail. The fact is, that wherever its statements can be sufficiently tested, Genesis 10 of the Bible has been found completely accurate; resulting partly from linguistic studies, partly from archaeology, and, more recently still, from the findings of physical anthropologists, who are, to this day, recovering important clues to lines of migration in ancient historic times. As implied in verse 32 of Genesis 10, this Table includes everybody; meaning that so-called fossil man, primitive peoples (ancient and modern) and modern man are all derived from Noah's three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. In light of this, findings from anthropology, archaeology, ethnography, ethnohistory, genetics and geology, substantiate an alternate interpretation of the history of humanity. Additionally, references from historical records, ancient literature, mythology, burial customs, and other sources, all provide strong evidences.

above the most local community of homesteads like the soga of Uganda, interests of the indigenous people to aim at purely African institutions at so
European penetration of the East African hinterland dates from little more than 100 years ago. Colonial administration commenced formerly in 1890, but effective control in local areas required a decade or two more for its accomplishment. In its entirety the era ended with the independence of Tanganyika in 1961, Uganda in 1962, and Kenya and Zanzibar in 1963. The European presence- whatever its accomplishments or failures, advantages or drawbacks-both forced and attracted East Africa abruptly into the modern world. THE SUKUMA

Details of Sukuma origins are obscure. Available evidence suggests that the tribe as it exists today a conglomeration of disparate, indigenous. Bantu- speaking clans, overlaid with immigrant Hima (Nilo - Hamitic) stock. The migrants, who were Voluntarily accepted as chiefs after their arrival, made their way around the West Side of Lake Victoria from Uganda and farther north between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Perhaps because it represents one geographical extreme of this Migration, the Sukuma amalgam is virtually complete physically and culturally. Rigid differentiation does not exist as in some other inter-lacustrine tribes: most Sukuma believe they are at least distant relatives of former chiefs. The individual chiefdom, rather than the tribe, was traditionally the primary focus of loyalty above the most local community of homesteads like the Soga of Uganda, the Sukuma were a multi- kingdom collection of more or less autonomous chieftaincies. Approximately fifty in number, these were ruled by chiefs possessing magic-religious as well as political powers. The necessity for a fundamentally approving consensus on the part of the people, and certain privileges and sanctions enjoyed by groups within the traditional political order limited the autocratic tendencies of chiefs. Principal among these groups were electors (bananghoma) who were relatives of the royal line but themselves ineligible for office, leaders of the elders (Banamhala), and leaders of the young men (basumba batale).

35. Soga Del Alma
and Iboga and different Cannabis Sativas from africa. By guiding people on a Sayre’s main concern is to teach people how to progress beyond ordinary
Programme Accomodation Curanderos Special guests ...
John Heuser
, Sayre Tupac Wiracocha, Dr. Grossman Sayre Tupac Wiracocha
Title of his speech:
The Myth of Inkarri: The Path of the Power Plants
Sayre Tupac Wiracocha ( ), a direct descendant of one of the last Inca families of Peru, has worked and studied the healing practices of the ancient Andean shamanic tradition for over thirty years. He guides people on journeys of self-discovery in the Sacred Valley and throughout the world, maintaining regular groups across the United States, Australia, Russia, South Africa, and in South America. Sayre is primarily an expert in medicinal plants and their curative properties, while also a master of martial arts, an economist, and a learned authority on the local geography, ecology, culture and politics in Peru.
International Association for the Preservation of Indigenous Cultures (IAPIC) and The Association for the Preservation of Peruvian Textiles (TAPPT). For more information on these, please visit

36. History Of The Press In South Africa -
stations in the Eastern Cape and the work between missionaries and indigenouspeople. The papers included Izwi laBantu, started in 1897 by AK soga;
Mon, 26 Sep 2005 About South Africa Culture Democracy Demographics ...
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Mapping the best sites in SA cyberspace - goSouthAfrica
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History of the press in South Africa During the apartheid era, newspapers had to apply for registration if they published more than 11 times a year. An arbitrary amount was also required before registration was approved. The government also enforced regulations controlling what newspapers could or could not publish, especially relating to articles and comment on activities against the apartheid system. Newspapers were, for instance, not allowed to quote banned organisations and their spokesmen, or report on conditions inside prisons or the activities of the security forces. At the height of the anti-apartheid struggle in the 1980s, when two states of emergency were declared, censorship regulations were tightened. Newspapers were barred from reporting on any demonstrations or activity against the apartheid government or any of its laws. The threat of closure forced newspaper editors to apply a self-censorship policy, while other papers printed blank pages or whole paragraphs blacked out as a sign of protest.

by such great heroes and heroines of our people as Tiyo soga, Nehemiah Tile,Mangena Mokone, our historical roots are among the poor in africa.
Leaders and members of the Ethiopian Episcopal Church,
Brothers and Sisters,
Ladies and gentlemen: Twenty years ago, in 1980, the late President of the African National Congress, Oliver Tambo, addressed the World Consultation of the World Council of Churches which was held in Holland. The Consultation had been convened to consider the issue of the role of the church in the struggle against racism during the 1980's. In his statement he quoted parts of Verses 27 and 28 of Chapter 1 of the Book of Genesis. With your permission, I would like to present these verses in full. 27: " So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." 28: " And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth." Had he been alive, Oliver Tambo would have drawn great strength and inspiration from your "Declaration of the faith of this church" adopted at your Special Conference last year when you yourselves, true to the Holy Scriptures, said:

38. South Africa: News And Media
bullet, Online South African Newspapers. bullet, Media Contact Details in the Eastern Cape and the work between missionaries and indigenous people.
History of the Press in South Africa Government and Communication BUA Briefs Letter from the President (released every Friday) Today's Headlines in Africa
  • New York Times Yahoo Full Coverage of South Africa SABC News BBC ... Morning Newspapers You'll never be left in the dark in this part of Africa. The country has an astonishingly robust, free and flourishing press. There are 19 daily and 10 weekly newspapers - most of them in English - and a range of general and specialised news web sites which, in terms of the speed and breadth of their coverage, are on a par with the best in the world. South Africa's press, with a proud history of criticism of the previous government's apartheid policies, entered the new democracy unburdened by the pre-1994 restrictions.

39. Attwell
By 1910, however, with the Act of Union, South africa s symbolic struggle soga shared the missionary ethos almost as deeply as any child of a white
Spring 1997
Volume 23, Number 3 Excerpt from
Intimate Enmity in the Journal of Tiyo Soga
by David Attwell Of course, that which resists translation between cultures, even in the intimacy of protracted interaction, must also claim our attentionI shall return to this. By 1910, however, with the Act of Union, South Africa's "symbolic struggle" had produced a colonial state that, as the Comaroffs put it, was both "an institutional order of political regulation and a condition of being, a structure and a predicament" ( E, By the mid-nineteenth century, the "new order" in the Cape Colony entailed a shift from a patriarchal mode of authority vested in the person of the Dutch pastoralist to a diffused, administrative form of power that limited the authority of the chiefs, redefined prevailing conditions of movement and labor for Africans, and consolidated a discursive regime based on the otherness of the native. The systemic quality of these developments leads one to conclude that at least part of the contemporary search for the roots of apartheid must be conducted in the effects of the British settlement. The "stabilizing presence" of the 1820 settlers was to make use of civilized "'free labour'" rather than slavery, but the settlers' prosperity came increasingly to depend on other forms of coercion. As Martin Legassick puts it, "the basis of 'civilisation'the aspiration of the Enlightenmentlay in the practice of 'barbarism.'" Under these conditions the English language assumed the position it holds today, of being what J. M. Coetzee aptly calls "a deeply entrenched foreign language."

40. SPRING 2001 With Complete Texts By Members Of The STH Community
Women leaders included Mina soga, social worker and first African woman to attend an 17 Ibid.; Deji Ayegboyin and S. Ademola Ishola, African indigenous
S PRING With complete texts by members of the STH community
Focus is published by the
Boston University
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Office of Development
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Contact Us
Shifting Southward:
Global Christianity Since 1945 Dana L. Robert
Truman Collins Professor of World Mission From December 12 to 29, 1938, the most representative meeting of world Protestantism to date took place in Tambaram, India. Under the gathering storm clouds of World War II, with parts of China already under Japanese occupation, with Hitler triumphant in the Sudetenland, and with Stalinism in full swing, 471 persons from sixty-nine countries met at Madras Christian College for the second decennial meeting of the International Missionary Council (IMC). The central theme that drew so many to India at a time of multiple global crises was "the upbuilding of the younger churches as a part of the historic universal Christian community." With Protestant missions bearing fruit in many parts of the world, the time was ripe for "younger" non-Western churches to take their places alongside older Western denominations in joint consideration of the universal church's faith, witness, and social realities and responsibilities. The roster of attendees reads like a who's who of mid-twentieth-century world Christianity.

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