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81. USA/Africa No. 228: Indigenous Values I
derived from their own indigenous African institution the village issue waslaid before the people to debate and reach a consensus.
George Ayittey clarifies and develops further some of his points:
In my original posting, my task was to craft a viable "African" solution
to the political crises in Ivory Coast, Sudan and other African
countries in 1,200 words or less.
My contention is that the basic cause of most of these crises is the
"politics of exclusion" and can be resolved through an independent and
sovereign "national conference." This vehicle was used successfully by
Benin, South Africa, Zambia and other African countries to chart a new
political dispensation for their respective countries. Delegates to
these conferences themselves assert that these national conferences were
derived from their own indigenous African institution - the village meeting, variously called ama-ala, asetena kese, pitso, ndaba, and kgotla by certain African ethnic groups. Hence, reaching back to African roots and crafting an "African solution to an African problem." I posted my write-up for comments unfortunately, right from the get-go, many commentaries veered way off mark. I protested and indicated that

82. Zimbabwe, Country, Africa. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Some 98% of the population is African, with the shona group predominant. During the 1830s, the shonaspeaking people were subjected to Ndebele invaders,
Select Search All All Reference Columbia Encyclopedia World History Encyclopedia Cultural Literacy World Factbook Columbia Gazetteer American Heritage Coll. Dictionary Roget's Thesauri Roget's II: Thesaurus Roget's Int'l Thesaurus Quotations Bartlett's Quotations Columbia Quotations Simpson's Quotations Respectfully Quoted English Usage Modern Usage American English Fowler's King's English Strunk's Style Mencken's Language Cambridge History The King James Bible Oxford Shakespeare Gray's Anatomy Farmer's Cookbook Post's Etiquette Bulfinch's Mythology Frazer's Golden Bough All Verse Anthologies Dickinson, E. Eliot, T.S. Frost, R. Hopkins, G.M. Keats, J. Lawrence, D.H. Masters, E.L. Sandburg, C. Sassoon, S. Whitman, W. Wordsworth, W. Yeats, W.B. All Nonfiction Harvard Classics American Essays Einstein's Relativity Grant, U.S. Roosevelt, T. Wells's History Presidential Inaugurals All Fiction Shelf of Fiction Ghost Stories Short Stories Shaw, G.B. Stein, G. Stevenson, R.L. Wells, H.G. Reference Columbia Encyclopedia See also: Zimbabwe Factbook PREVIOUS NEXT CONTENTS ... BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Zimbabwe, country, Africa

83. Dateline: News
Sculpting is a spiritual act to the shona people. I wanted to introduce theart of africa to the people of the United States.
The Spirit of the Stones
Zimbabwean sculpting on display in Princeton
By Derek Benes
Time Off Staff Writer
Wednesday, May 27, 1998

If an art form is no longer practiced, that does not necessarily mean it's gone forever. The traditional form of sculpting in Zimbabwe, known as Shona, virtually disappeared after 1500. The style was not seen again for nearly 500 years. Then in the late 1950s a group of artists revived the tradition.
Forty years later, Shona sculptures - named after the country's largest ethnic group - have become a hot topic in the western art world. Sculptures can see price tags of $50,000 attached to them, and buyers are traveling to Africa by the dozens to see what's going on.
For Peggy Knowlton, knowledge of this art is old news. Visiting the country yearly, the art buyer has been importing the style and exhibiting them since 1983, as she will be at Spirit Stones From Zimbabwe at 19 Hulfish Street in Princeton until June 7.
"These sculptures have universal appeal," says Ms. Knowlton. "You watch people come in and they immediately want to touch them, rub them; some even caress them, and put their arms around them."
The exhibit and sale is a benefit for Homefront, formerly known as The Exchange Club, which helps homeless families in Mercer County by supplying food, clothing, medical treatment and housing. It features more than 500 sculptures by 38 Shona artists, and the prices range from $80-$18,000.

84. CIESIN Information Cooperative - Organizational Guide - CIKARD - Activities And
Supporting the International Year for indigenous People, CIKARD has planned to indigenous Knowledge Systems for Sustainable Agriculture in africa.
Activities and Programs
Center for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development
Acting as a Global Clearinghouse for Indigenous Knowledge Systems
The documentation unit and library of the Center for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development (CIKARD) has so far collected, catalogued, and preserved more than 4,000 documents pertaining to indigenous knowledge systems from all over the globe. Most of the documents are unpublished 'gray literature' and are not available in libraries. A recent publication of the U.S. National Research Council (1992: 10), supporting this role of CIKARD, states that "Development agencies should place greater emphasis on, and assume a stronger role in, systematizing the local knowledge baseindigenous knowledge, 'gray literature,' anecdotal information. A vast heritage of knowledge about species, ecosystems, and their use exists, but it does not appear in the world literature, being either insufficiently "scientific" or not "developmental."
Designing Training Manuals on Methodologies for Recording Indigenous Knowledge Systems
A consortium of Iowa Institutions of Higher Education, representing three state universities and the state's largest community college, with their Nigerian counterpart institutes, has been awarded a Co-operative Agreement by USAID under the University Development Linkage Project (UDLP). The purpose of the UDLP is to strengthen institutional capacities for research and training in several key areas of development planning and management. CIKARD at Iowa State University is one of the member institutions in the consortium. The program objectives of the UDLP focus on eight principal areas of which indigenous knowledge systems is a central one. Workshops are currently being conducted in the eight institutions to gain an understanding of and an appreciation for the role of indigenous knowledge systems in agriculture, rural development, and natural resource management.

85. World Council Delegates Hear The 'heartbeat Of Mother Earth' - 12/11/98
HARARE, Zimbabwe – indigenous peoples of the earth were told today that solidarity Like the African sun, indigenous anger is rising to a searing level,
World Council delegates hear
the 'heartbeat of mother earth'
'Drums have feelings, too'
By Parker T. Williamson
The Presbyterian Layman

Friday, December 11, 1998
Padare leader with drum
Several WCC padares (a Shona word for "meeting place") are focusing on the plight of indigenous people. Like the African sun, indigenous anger is rising to a searing level, matched only by the contrition that is being confessed by white westerners, many of whom are now wearing African clothing, presumably to demonstrate their solidarity with the oppressed. In the WCC's first full day of padares, this rage/remorse syndrome has assumed center stage.
Supporting the Shamans
A padare on the Sami people, reindeer herders from the Arctic who are fighting Norway, Sweden and Finland for control of their land, started out as a geography lesson. Three padare leaders, dressed in brightly-colored costumes, talked about the history and culture of their people. They said they were being invaded by mining interests who, with the complicity of the Christian church, are pushing them north.
Anger accelerated as they told how Sami faith had been discounted by Christian missionaries in the past and is still demeaned by the church today. "Our people have shamans," said a Sami leader. "When a women is pregnant, the shaman communes with the ancestors." Ancestors decide which of them will return to earth in this birth, and the woman names her child accordingly. Thus the shaman links two worlds.

86. CIA - The World Factbook -- Zimbabwe
African 98% (shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous
Select a Country or Location World Afghanistan Akrotiri Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Armenia Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dhekelia Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Europa Island Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands Gabon Gambia, The

87. South Africa Seminar: Info Pages
It is the most spoken indigenous? language in africa, making up the Soon theBritish colonized the area, oppressing the indigenous people as well as
Global Perspectives on Human Language:
The South African Context
Language Systems in South Africa and Their Parallels to the Linguistic Struggle of Blacks in the U.S. Additional Links Tracy Conner
Updated 9-19-2004 South Africa is a country where the fierce hold of apartheid is a decade removed and economic success is still sharply divided among color lines. Nevertheless, some of the most progressive policies dealing with language have been constructed. Under the National Language Policy Framework (NLPF) organized in 2003, higher salience was placed on languages other than those of previous European colonizers. Although the expanded policy ideally should have evened the racial playing field, it has actually continued racial and economic stratification through the subtleties of language. Before 2003, the language policy in South Africa allowed only for two official languages, Afrikaans and English, meaning these were the only languages of instruction. Today English is considered to be the language of upward mobility, and Afrikaans is the language of instruction in many schools, while the mother tongues of much of the population are the indigenous languages of Southern Africa. Before legislation expanding the official languages was passed, the masses who had been labeled inferior during apartheid were now "free" to speak an "inferior" language under that system. The NLPF passed this new policy to equalize languages within society. However, one must keep in mind that "[i]t is not language per se, but its power to function as a 'proxy' for wider social issues which fans the flames over public disputes over language," (Johnson, 599). For this reason, the linguistic differences that led to hardship in this country in some ways parallel similar language issues in the Black community of the US. By comparing and contrasting these language issues, it may be possible to realize a common goal, and continue to move forward address existing linguistic inequalities.

88. IVE Cultures Explored
Asikatali, South African Freedom Song; from Freedom is Coming Marcos LeiteIndigenous peoples of the Brazilian Amazon, Jaboti Tribe; arr. Marlui Miranda
 Cultures Explored
  • Africa Asia
    • India Indonesia Japan China ... Taiwan America Australia Europe
      South African Repertoire
      Nodolly Collected From Khabo Semelane Yenkululeko Collected from Erica Swart Jeso Kwangana Ntate Collected from Mapole Ntsana Jericho Collected from Ludumo Magangane Qonqgotwane arr. S. Matiure, after Miriam Makeba Nkosi Sikelel' Afrika South African National Anthem. Composed by Enoch Sontonga Asikatali South African Freedom Song; from Freedom is Coming Ngiqome kwazulu Traditional Wedding Song; collected from Erica Swart Sibonono sami Zulu Dance Song; collected from Erica Swart Imbube Traditional Zulu Song; collected from Erica Swart Singabahambayo South African Freedom Song; from Freedom is Coming Skeleme Hey! Traditional Sotho Song; modeled by the Potchefstrom University Serenaders Mohlang Traditional Sotho Song; modeled by the Potchefstrom University Serenaders Isokoroko South Africa; collected from Erica Swart

89. African Art Handcarved Shona Stone Sculpture
African art sculpture portraying animals and people in both realistic and abstract Click Here for Information About African Art and shona Stone Carvings
Click Here for the Complete African Art Catalog and Free Shipping Information
African Art
Traditional and Abstract Stone Carvings
African art sculpture portraying animals and people in both realistic and abstract form. The pieces are all one of a kind, carved using different types of stone such as serpentine, verdite, springstone, African butter jade and rapoko, an African term for soapstone used by indigenous carvers throughout the world. The term rapoko originated among the Shona artists of Zimbabwe, where it derived from the stone's common resemblance to the roasted millet consumed by a majority of that country's indigenous inhabitants. Most of the stones are found in a large spectrum of colors, varying from creamy white to black.
We have an abiding love for the southern part of Africa: its people, its customs, its wildlife that exists freely within its remaining beautiful open spaces. We are particularly fond of African art as represented by the beautiful stone carvings that we offer here for your examination and purchase. The sculptures shown in this catalog are representative of those we import from Africa regularly, shipping to you from our Woodland Hills, California location. We have a very large inventory in addition to those pieces illustrated. If there is something you would like to ask about, call us at (888) 237-4327.

90. African Art Stone Sculpture Carving Zimbabwe Shona Red Eagle Gallery
African shona Stone Sculpture Samuel Bryant is Red Eagle. Mukumbi s artreflects the daily life of the shona people through his ability to capture human
Search our Galleries
Stone Sculptures
Hangings Masks Photo Tours ... Events Red Eagle Gallery
300 North Farish St. Unit A
Jackson, MS 39202
11:00 am - 5:30 pm
Tel: 601 948-8946
Fax: 601 948-8947
e-mail us

Shona Artists Contact Us ... Links
African Shona Stone Sculpture Paintings
We are in the process of updating our site, more info and art is on the way. Red Eagle Gallery presents the finest Arican stone sculpture created in the Shona tradition of excellence—to be found outside of Zimbabwe, Africa. Using fair trade practices, owners Samuel and Judy Bryant, select each piece from the artists of Zimbabwe , contributing directly and significantly to the artists’ extended families and to the economy of Zimbabwe. Samuel Bryant is Red Eagle. This name was given to him in a vision on the Nez Perce Indian Reservation in eastern Oregon years before opening the gallery or visiting Zimbabwe . The national symbol of that country is the eagle, known as Chapungu (chah poong´goo) in the Shona language. Sacred to the Shona, Chapungu is the messenger between humans and Creator, with the same role as the Bald Eagle to the indigenous people of North America. Browse our galleries for the finest hand-carved African stone sculpture, paintings, batiks, and baskets.

91. World InfoZone - Zimbabwe Information - Page 2
Zimbabwe s most famous evidence of Bantu culture (shona people) can be seen at the ZANU (the Zimbabwe African National Union), led by Robert Mugabe,

92. Dangarembga
Meat Stew ) or simply Sadza is the staple diet for most of Zimbabwe s indigenouspeoples. The Genuine shona Survival Values of an African Culture.
Humanities 211
Prof. Cora Agatucci
6 October 1998: Learning Resources
Tsitsi Dangarembga (b. 1959)
with the author,
scholarly articles
additional sources Nervous Conditions
study guide
: Characters, Family Relationships, Places,
Zimbabwe Southeast Africa
literary map
Ethnic Group: Shona
related links " Nervous Conditions is that rare novel whose characters are unforgettable. . . .
Nervous Conditions introduces quite a new voice that, in its self-assurance, sounds, at times, very old. As if the African sisters, mothers, and cousins of antiquity were, at last, beginning to reassert themselves in these perilous times, and to speak. It is an expression of liberation not to be missed." Alice Walker (From book jacket notes in U.S. ed. of Nervous Conditions [Seattle: The Seal Press, 1988]). " A girl's coming of age in a world shaped by conflicting cultures" on Nervous Conditions , McDougal Littell's Literature Connections:

93. African Music Links
Kennedy Center Palm Pictures) an annual tour celebrating African music, An excerpt For the shona people and the world at large, the shona ancestors
Humanities 211
Prof. Cora Agatucci
6 October 1998: Learning Resources
African Music Links Africa Fete Tour '99
African Performances/Events in Depth:
Africa on Roots World provides information about African musicians, as well as interviews and reviews of recordings:

The site includes Village Pulse Outpost: "Village Pulse is a recording label that was established to preserve recordings of traditional music. The first Village Pulse titles present styles of West African drum music that have been largely unavailable to the outside world": Africa South of the Sahara - Music (Stanford Univ Libraries): excellent annotated selection of internet resources:
African Music Archive (Dr. Wolfgang Bender, Institute of Ethnology and African Studies, Johannes-Gutenberg Univ., Mainz, Germany) of African music and musicology opened in 1991:

94. The Achievements And Challenges Of Zimbabwe  The Odyssey Is Extremely Grateful
Many people believe africa to be the birthplace of the human race. IndigenousPeople Lessons. Help Teacher s Guide Message Board Register
The Achievements and Challenges of Zimbabwe
(These lessons were originally posted on the Odyssey Worktrek website)

The Odyssey is extremely grateful to the teachers at Bay Breeze Educational Resources for contributing these lessons for your use! Special thanks go to Maureen Carroll and Laurel Blaine.
Learning objectives for students
This unit is intended to focus on some of those aspects of Zimbabwean life and history that are of great significance to understanding the people of Zimbabwe today and their situation. By using or adapting the core lessons and activities, your students will learn about the following: Students will be encouraged to develop a critical stance toward information. They will learn to evaluate evidence, consider sources, and study a variety of differing viewpoints. The goal for these lessons in the Teacher Zone is for students to develop an understanding of the culture of Zimbabwe and to develop critical thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
Lessons and activities for students I. Introductory Activity - Zimbabwe Today

This is a resource for people around the world who have an interest in Mbira, ombrarossapiccola.jpg (728 byte) Online African and shona Art Gallery
languages-on-the-web is now The page you are looking for is now

ombrarossapiccola.jpg (728 byte) South African Language XHOSA In these warsthe Xhosa, agricultural and pastoral peoples native to the Eastern Cape,
languages-on-the-web is now The page you are looking for is now

97. Journal Of Peace, Conflict And Military Studies
Thereafter, the indigenous African population was relocated to the The ZimbabwePeoples African Union (ZAPU) emerged and was banned before the collapse
Journal Menu University Home CDS Home Page Journal Archives Issue Home Page ... Subscriptions
Vol. 1, No. 2, November 2000, ISSN 1563-4019 Book Reviews by Gerald Horne (University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2001),
ISBN No. 0-8078-4903, pp. 1-389 Introduction
The Zimbabwean political leadership has continued to play the race card trying to draw parallels in the US, seeking to link the current diplomatic hiatus with the race issue as manifested in the work being reviewed as the determinant to the acrimonious relations between Washington and Harare.
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that marched into the country from Bechuanaland [now Botswana]. Marching on a straight line to Mazoe, where gold lodes had been discovered, the Pioneer Column established strategic forts on the border with Bechauanaland, at Tuli, Victoria, Enkeldoorn and Salisbury. They reached Salisbury in September of 1890 and raised the British flag.
No significant amounts of gold were discovered and by 1891, the Company turned to other activities in order to survive. To its credit, within a generation, the BSA Co. managed to attract major overseas investment in beef, tobacco, small-scale mining and exploitation of timber and citrus fruit. These financial interests, many of them with linkages to entities in the Union of South Africa, played a similar role as the BSA Co. in facilitating the exploitation of the country.

The word zimbabwe is derived from the shona language, and means houses of stone . I tried to inspire the students with the history of African people,
Supporters of the ruling Zanu PF
party protest on a white-owned
By RUNOKO RASHIDI DEDICATED TO THE SCHOOL OF AFRICAN AWARENESS "A nation without a past is a lost nation, and a people without a past is a people without a soul."
Seretse Khama
T ZIMBABWE The word zimbabwe is derived from the Shona language, and means houses of stone . Due significantly to the actions of Zimbabwe's president Robert Mugabe and the reclaiming of Zimbabwean land by its indigenous people , Zimbabwe has been catapulted prominently into the international news headlines for the past several months. The economy is deteriorating, tourism is down, and a number of people, including several Whites, have been killed over the past few months. There has been great anxiety in many circles that the phenomenon of Africans reclaiming African land for African people will spread to the rest of Africa, and President Mugabe himself has gained a heroic stature among African nationalists. With the completion of my Africa Day lecture series in Namibia on May 28, 2000, I caught an Air Namibia flight from Windhoek, Namibia to Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. After a journey of a little less than two hours, my mission was accomplished. I quickly secured my visa, and stood for the first time on Zimbabwean soil. It was wintertime in Zimbabwe, and the weather was dry and cool. The country was beautiful, the people seemed friendly, and I had the sense of great personal satisfaction that I had realized another dream of a lifetime.

99. POLITICS-ZIMBABWE: To Loan, Or Not To Loan
POLITICS African Veto Demand Risks Security Council Reform indigenous PEOPLESDAY Riches Out from Under India s Orissa Tribals

100. Oxfam Australia :: Our Work In Mozambique
Situated on the southeast African coast, Mozambique is home to nearly 20 Oxfam Australia is helping associations of people living with HIV/AIDS to
  • Programs Donate Now Events Media About Us Campaigns Get Active Resources Shop Search
Your location :: home our programs africa mozambique Email to a friend Print Friendly Mozambique About Our Program - Program Overview - Country Profile - Program Themes ... Links
Photo Essay See Paul Weinberg's photo essay of Mavume
Mavume Project Come on a virtual project visit and meet the people of Mavume, a tiny village in central Mozambique. Find out how a project supported by Oxfam Australia is helping to change their lives for the better.
Country Statistics Captial: Maputo Population: 19.4 million Ethnic groups: Indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Shona, Swahili and others), Euro-Africans 0.2%, Europeans 0.06% Languages: Portuguese (official). Most people speak Indigenous languages. Religions: Indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20% Life expectancy: females 40.0 years; males 36.9 years HIV/AIDS prevalence rate: 12.2% (15–49 years) Population below poverty line: (USD $1 per day) 37.9% Population with access to improved sanitation: Literacy: females 31.4%; males 62.3%

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