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         Sea Otters:     more books (100)
  1. Sea Otters and the China Trade, by Robert Kingery. Buell, 1968-06
  2. Sea Otter Chiefs by Michael P. Robinson, 1998-06-25
  3. Sea Otters And The China Trade by Buell And Skladal, 1968
  4. Ode to Oliver: The Adventures of a Sea Otter
  5. Baby Sea Otter (Seaworld Library) by Patricia A. Pingry, 2006-05-30
  6. Sea Otters and Seaweed by Patricia Lauber, 1976-10
  7. Sea Otters (The World of Mammals) by Sophie Lockwood, 2005-08
  8. The southern sea otter (Endangered animals) by Ernie Holyer, 1975
  9. The flying sea otters, by George Laycock, 1971
  10. Sea Otters: A Natural History and Guide by Roy Nickerson, 1998-03-01
  11. Kip: A Sea Otter (Cover-to-Cover Books) by Bonnie Highsmith Taylor, 2000-06
  12. Sea Otters
  13. Seals, Sea Lions and Sea Otters (Alaska Geographic)
  14. The Ecology Kidds and the: Robbers of the Giant Cactus, Troubles in the Rain Forest, Monarchs at Risk, Threat to the Sea Otters, the Condor Hoax (The Ecology Kidds Series) by Elaine Pageler, 1995-11

21. Southern Sea Otters

22. The Marine Mammal Center
Alaskan sea otters tend to have lighter fur on their heads. sea otters are the smallest marine mammal. Adult females weigh 3560 pounds (16-27 kg);
our group programs
marine mammal information


sea lions at PIER 39
Sea Otters
Enhydra lutris

meaning of scientific name: otter DESCRIPTION: Sea otters are members of the weasel or mustelid family. Like other members of this family, they have very thick fur. In fact, at 850,000 to one million hairs per square inch, they have the thickest fur of any mammal. Their fur actually consists of two layers, an undercoat and longer guard hairs. This system traps a layer of air next to their skin so their skin does not get wet. Sea otters are usually dark brown, often with lighter guard hairs. Alaskan sea otters tend to have lighter fur on their heads. Sea otters are the smallest marine mammal. Adult females weigh 35-60 pounds (16-27 kg); males reach up to 90 pounds (40 kg). Alaskan sea otters are bigger with males weighing up to 100 pounds (45 kg). RANGE/HABITAT: Sea otters once ranged from Mexico to Alaska and even to Japan. Currently, the California population numbers around 2,000 and is found from Half Moon Bay to Morro Bay. There is a much larger population in Alaska, and sea otters are still found in Russia. Sea otters inhabit shallow coastal areas and prefer places with kelp. The kelp acts as an anchor that the sea otters use to wrap themselves in when they are resting.

23. Species At Risk - Sea Otter
sea otters have dense and soft fur that is their sole protection from the sea otters have a large and flat head; large teeth that can be used to crush

24. - Sea Otters Face Population Decline - Aug 9, 2005
Southwest Alaska s sea otters, which came back from the brink of extinction in the 1800s, are facing another dramatic decline and could be named a

25. Help Is On The Way For Threatened Sea Otters - Environment -
Southwest Alaska s sea otters are facing a dramatic decline and could be named a threatened species as early as Tuesday.
Skip navigation U.S. News Hurricanes' Wrath The Changing Court ... Most Popular NBC NEWS MSNBC TV Today Show Nightly News Meet the Press ... Environment
Help is on the way for threatened sea otters
Alaskan population to get federal protection after dramatic decline
Al Grillo / AP file
Alaska's sea otters, seen here in the waters off of the Aleutian Island of Adak, have faced a dramatic decline in numbers.
ANCHORAGE, Alaska - Southwest Alaska's sea otters, which came back from the brink of extinction in the 1800s, are facing another dramatic decline and could be named a "threatened" species as early as Tuesday. There are no clear answers why the population across a wide swath of Alaska has plummeted or how to reverse the decline, said Douglas Burn, leader of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's sea otter program. "It is a complex task, partly because we don't know with 100 percent certainty how we got here," Burn said. Protection as a threatened species under the federal Endangered Species Act is a start to finding those answers. Once a notice is published in the Federal Register, which Burn expects to happen Tuesday, the Fish and Wildlife Service will be required to come up with a recovery plan.

26. Animal Planet :: Corwin's Carnival Of Creatures
Male sea otters average 5 feet and 70 pounds; females average 4 feet and 60 pounds. sea otters live in shallow coastal waters, especially kelp beds.
September 25, 2005 Lost? View the Carnival Map
Special Exhibit! Sharks: Beyond the Jaws
Back to Water Beasts Sea Otter Enhydra lutris
Order: Carnivora
Family: Mustelidae
  • Male sea otters average 5 feet and 70 pounds; females average 4 feet and 60 pounds.
  • They are dark brown with lighter heads that turn grayish white with age.
  • Sea Otters live in shallow coastal waters, especially kelp beds.
  • They range from central California north to Prince William Sound, Alaska, and westward along the Aleutian, Commander and Kuril islands. They can also be on the southern tip of Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula, and the southeastern coast of Sakhalin Island.
  • Carnivores, sea otters prey on bottom-dwelling invertebrate species such as abalone, urchins, clams and crabs. They are expert divers.
  • Highly intelligent, otters use rocks for cracking shells as they float on their backs while feeding.
  • They spend about eight hours a day diving and eating.
  • Male sea otters live for 10 to 15 years, and females for 15 to 20.

Information on sea otters. The sea otter population was nearly decimated by the fur trade and they now are a protected and endangered species.
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Sea Otter
Enhydra lutris
Description - This weasel-like creature has a long, thick tail with dense, dark brown to blond fur, the fur on the head is paler. The head and neck lighten with age, turning almost white. Average weight is 70-100 pounds.
- Naturally occurring from the Aleutian Islands to Alaska, the sea otter has been transplanted to the southern part of Canada's Pacific coast.
Biology - The sea otter feeds on clams, sea urchins, abalone, crabs, mussels, starfish and fish. They swim belly up with their front paws in the air, using the webbed hind feet for propulsion. They dive for one to two minutes but can stay down for up to five minutes. They "raft" together in sexually segregated groups of up to several hundred animals. Their dense fur has up to 100 000 hairs per square centimetre which traps tiny air bubbles in it which repels moisture and keeps them warm. The female has one pup every 1-2 years. The sea otter population was nearly decimated by the fur trade and they now are a protected and endangered species. Their sensitivity to environmental pollution keeps them at risk.

28. Sea Otters: Surfing The Net With Kids
The best sea otter sites for kids, teachers and families, from United Feature Syndicate.
...Click for Menu... ~~ Home ~~ Light a Fire Quotations How to Add Games Email Book Clubs Book Store Coupons Calendar Blog Free Web Content Games Jokes Newsletters Parents Postcards Printables Screensavers Suggest a Site Tell a Friend Top Ten Pages Topic Directory ~~ Search this Site Arts, Crafts, Music Computers, Internet Hobbies, Sports Geography Holidays, History Language Arts Math Parents, Teachers Pre-K and K Science, Animals Link to Us From my Mailbox My Bio Ad Rates Write Me Visit My Office
Related Games
Sea Otter Jigsaw

Sea Otter Word Game

Sea Otter Board Game Quiz

Related Sites
Read Reader Suggestions

Suggest a Sea Otter Site

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Send a Sea Otter Postcard
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29. Minnesota Zoo/Animals/Northern Trail
Contains information about sea otters. Information includes habitat, diet, and physical description.
Select an animal Beaver Bull Snake Eastern Cottontail Ermine Fisher Great Horned Owl Lynx Minnesota Bats Otter Porcupine Puma Saw-whet Owl Southern Flying Squirrel Spotted Skunk Timber Rattler Wolverine Animal Search A-Z Otter Endangered Species Description: Head and body length: 55-80 cm (21.5 - 31.5 in); tail: 30-50 cm (11.75 - 19.75 in); weight: 4.5-14 kg (10-30 lbs). Upper parts are brownish and underparts are paler; lower jaw and throat may be whitish. Rich dark brown to chocolate to seal brown; fur is short and dense; head is flattened and round with short neck; tail is thick, flexible and muscular, tapering to point at the end; short legs and webbed feet; small ears and nostrils can be closed when animal is submerged. Males are about 5% larger than females; long slender body. To learn more click here.

30. Sea-otter
Urchin Bed sea otters prey on sea urchins, keeping their populations in balance. sea otters are a keystone species in the kelp forest ecosystem,
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Mother and pup A beautiful animal… Sea otters are members of the weasel family, with large eyes and thick, dark brown fur. Their rich pelt has up to a million hairs per square inch which substitutes for blubber to keep them warm in cold water. Among the very few marine mammals known to use tools, they break open clams and abalone with stones to get at the meat inside. These intelligent animals live in shallow water and prefer kelp forests, sometimes anchoring themselves in one place by wrapping strands of kelp around their bodies while they rest.
Urchin Bed - Sea otters prey on sea urchins, keeping their populations in balance. Sea otters are a keystone species in the kelp forest ecosystem, eating sea urchins, clams, snails, sea stars, squid, octopuses and abalone. When present in healthy numbers, they keep sea urchin populations in check. When sea otters decline, however, urchin numbers explode—as does their grazing pressure on bull kelp. The urchins chew off the attachments keeping bull kelp in place, causing them to die and float away. This decimates kelp beds and sets off a chain reaction that depletes the food supply for other marine animals and in turn causes their decline.

31. Sea Otters
sea otters are the largest member of the weasel family and the smallest marine mammal. Ninety percent of the world’s sea otters live in coastal Alaska.
The Marine Mammal Protection Act protects sea otters. It prohibits commercial harvest of sea otters, and allows Alaska natives to hunt sea otters for subsistence and creation of handicrafts. Historically, sea otter populations made a dramatic comeback after near extinction due to overhunting, and later survived the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Now sea otters face steep declines in southwest Alaska. The population there has been listed under the Endangered Species Act. See Alaska Issues in-Depth Sea Otter for more details. Update: Aug 2005

32. Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Marine And Sea Otters
Bibliography of technical and popular articles from the Encyclopedia Smithsonian.
Smithsonian Institution
Marine Otters - Technical
Brownell, R.L., Jr. 1978 Ecology and conservation of the marine otter, Lutra felina Otters, Proceedings of the First Working Meeting of the IUCN - SSC Otter Specialist Group, Paramaribo, Suriname . IUCN Publication New Series, pp. 104-106. Cabello, C.C. 1978 La nutria de mar ( Lutra felina ) en la Isla de Chiloe, Chile. Otters, Proceedings of the First Working Meeting of the IUCN - SSC Otter Specialist Group, Paramaribo, Suriname . IUCN Publication New Series, pp. 108-118. La nutria de mar en la Isla de Chiloe . Corporacion National Forestal, Bol. Tec. 6, pp. 1-37. Castilla, J.C. 1982 Nuevas observaciones sobre conducta, ecologia y densidad de Lutra felina (Molina 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) en Chile . Publicaciones Ocas. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat.. No. 38, pp. 197-206. (In Spanish with English summary.) Estes, J.A. 1986 Marine otters and their environment. Ambio , Vol.15, No. 3, pp. 181-183. Grimwood, I.R. 1969 Notes on the Distribution and Status of Some Peruvian Mammals 1968 . Special publication 21, American Committee for International Wildlife Protection and New York Zoological Society, Bronx, New York. 86 pp.

33. Sea Otter Research At WERC
WERC maintains expertise on sea otters in California, Washington, and Alaska, and works with state, federal, and local partners throughout the species
Sea Otter Research at WERC
Sea otters ( Enhydra lutris ) are keystone predators in the nearshore environment of the eastern Pacific Ocean, in a food web composed of sea otter, sea urchin, and kelp forest. Without sea otters, the kelp forest can be overgrazed by sea urchins, which in turn can affect other species that depend on this ecosystem. The geographical range once extended across the North Pacific Ocean from the central Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, to northern Japan. Prior to the Pacific maritime fur trade, which began with the discovery of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands by the Bering Expedition in the mid-1700s, sea otters probably occurred at high densities more or less continuously throughout this region. However, the species was systematically hunted to the brink of extinction by the end of the 19th century. Sea otters were afforded protection from further take in 1911. About a dozen remnant colonies survived at the time of protection, and with protection these colonies began to recover. Populations in California and Alaska (Aleutian Archipelago) have declined in recent years. The California population was listed as "threatened" in 1977 under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Research on sea otters is mandated by the Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act.

34. California Sea Otter Numbers Are Up For The 2003 Census 6-6-2003
California Sea Otter Numbers are Up for the 2003 Census. Counters tallied a total of 2505 California sea otters in 2003, 17 percent more sea otters than the
News Release
U.S. Department of the Interior
U.S. Geological Survey Address
7801 Folsom Blvd., Suite 101
Sacramento, CA 95826
June 6, 2003 Contact
Gloria Maender
Jim Estes
Fax Email California Sea Otter Numbers are Up for the 2003 Census Counters tallied a total of 2,505 California sea otters in 2003, 17 percent more sea otters than the total of 2,139 otters in 2002, according to a survey led by the U.S. Geological Survey. Excellent to good counting conditions sped the 2003 census to a near-record time, running May 10-15. “This is the highest total count and the highest count of adult and young adult sea otters, 2,270, since current standardized methods came into practice in 1983,” said survey organizer Brian Hatfield, a USGS biologist in California. The total number of dependent pups counted was 235. The survey is conducted cooperatively with the California Department of Fish and Game, Monterey Bay Aquarium, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies and organizations. The information gathered from spring surveys is used by federal and state wildlife agencies in making decisions about the management of this sea mammal. This year’s survey also marks the greatest differential on record in totals for spring counts between any two sequential years. While the increased number of otters in the spring 2003 count is a hopeful sign that the California population may be increasing, the number is not necessarily indicative of an overall population increase, said Jim Estes, a USGS scientist. Spring counts have been quite variable since 1999. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Southern Sea Otter Recovery Plan recommends that trend analyses be based on 3-year running averages to reduce the influence of anomalously high or low counts during any particular year. Factors that can influence the count include viewing conditions, abundance and species composition of surface canopy kelp, observer experience, and distribution and movements of the animals.

35. EVOS-Oil Spill Facts-Status Of Sea Otters
Detailed information about the current status of sea otters in the em Exxon Valdez /em oil spill region.
Q and A Spill Map Spill Photos Details about the Accident ... Topical Bibliographies Sea Otter Injury
By the late 1800s, sea otters had been eliminated from most of their historical range in Alaska due to excessive harvesting by Russian and American fur traders. Surveys of sea otters in the 1970s and 1980s, however, indicated a healthy and expanding population in most of Alaska , including Prince William Sound Today the only harvests of sea otters are for subsistence purposes. About 1,000 sea otter carcasses were recovered following the spill, and additional animals probably died but were not recovered. In 1990 and 1991, higher-than-expected proportions of prime-age adult sea otters were found dead in western Prince William Sound , and there was evidence of higher mortality of recently weaned juveniles in oiled areas. Recovery Goal
A return to conditions that would have existed had the spill not occurred.

36. OCAQ Exhibits - Sea Otters
sea otters, extinct on the Oregon coast since the early 1900s, have now returned Visitors can learn about sea otters natural behaviors both from animal

37. - Alaska Sea Otters' Disappearance A Mystery - Feb. 4, 2004
International Edition MEMBER SERVICES The Web Home Page World U.S. Weather ... Autos SERVICES Video E-mail Newsletters Your E-mail Alerts RSS ... Contact Us SEARCH Web
Alaska sea otters' disappearance a mystery
Otters eat sea urchins, which feed on kelp. Without the otters to control urchin populations, scientists note that kelp is disappearing. Story Tools RELATED Aleutian otters take a nosedive Report: Ancient fishing linked to modern crisis At Sea Processors Association Center for Biological Diversity YOUR E-MAIL ALERTS U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Issues Animals or Create your own Manage alerts What is this? ANCHORAGE, Alaska (Reuters) - When Russian explorers first saw sea otters bobbing in the waters off Alaska's Aleutian Islands in the mid-18th century, they knew they had discovered a money maker. The otters' fur "is so far superior in length, beauty, blackness and gloss of hair to the river otters' pelts that these can scarcely be compared to it," wrote German naturalist Georg Steller, who accompanied legendary mariner Vitus Bering on his Alaska expeditions. Russian and American hunters later wiped out nearly all of Alaska's sea otters, whose luxurious fur became known as "soft gold." The otters were saved from extinction after a 1911 treaty banned the commercial hunt.

38. CNN - Oil Spill Lessons Offer Hope For Sea Otters - February 18, 1999

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Oil spill lessons offer hope for sea otters
Experts say pollution and disease are leading to a drastic decline in sea otter numbers
February 18, 1999
Web posted at: 11:40 AM EST
Ten years ago, on March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez spilled almost 11 million gallons of oil into Price William Sound, killing more than 5,000 sea otters. The spill has been called the largest environmental disaster in recent history but because of it, the United States is now better equipped to handle such a disaster. Research and programs initiated recently by several members of the Alliance of Marine Mammal Parks and Aquariums have focused on providing immediate help during such disasters. "In 1989, the scientific community was completely unprepared to deal with an oil spill of such magnitude. There wasn't even a local veterinarian on site," said Terrie Williams, a comparative physiologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and former research committee chair for the alliance. Williams, who helped organize the rescue effort in Prince William Sound, said the result of that experience and the research that followed enables "the marine mammal community to reduce our disaster response time from one week to 48 hours, and allows us to minimize damage to sea otters when crises occur."

39. Animal Bio - Sea Otter
Although the Pacific Coast offers sea otters an ideal environment to live in, Because sea otters rely on their dense fur for warmth, they re extremely
Alaska sea otters ( Enhydra lutris ) are totally West Coast, man. They're found entirely in the waters of the Pacific Ocean. When they're kicking back in the water, they're constantly grooming their fur to keep it dry. The rest of the time, they're sleeping and nibbling on some kind of seafood. Not a bad way to spend your day, don't you think? Get a taste of their leisurely lifestyle when you visit the Oceanarium at Shedd Aquarium.
Although the Pacific Coast offers sea otters an ideal environment to live in, it's in these same waters that their survival is threatened for a second time. An international law passed in 1911 put a stop to the trade of fur pelts by Russian, American and English fur traders. This law, in conjunction with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1973, helped increase sea otter populations.
Because sea otters rely on their dense fur for warmth, they're extremely vulnerable to the effects of an oil spill. If an otter swims in oil, its fur loses its insulating ability. Cold water can then penetrate the skin and cause hypothermia, eventually leading to death. But while these laws have helped certain populations of the sea otter to rise to between 100,000 and 150,000, the California population has had difficulties recovering from its threatened status. Various factors, including offshore petroleum development, have made it difficult for the government to establish programs that preserve the sea otter and satisfy all the needs of the public at the same time.

40. Gander Academy: Sea Otters
This site from Gander Academy is designed for primary and elementary students and teachers. It presents a series of web pages listing world wide web
Gander Academy
Sea Otters
  • Friends of the Sea Otter
  • Sea World: Sea Otters
    Sea otters once lived along most of the coastal North Pacific Ocean. That was before fur traders hunted them for their thick, luxurious pelts. By the year 1900, sea otters were nearly extinct. Today they're protected. The California population is still smallabout 2,000 sea otters spread over only about 226 km (140 mi.) of central California coastline. California sea otters are listed as "threatened" under the Endangered Species Act.
  • Sea Otter Page
    Hi there! You've come to the one stop otter shop. Here you can find everything you are looking for about sea otters. This site contains a collection of pictures, information on sea otters, and links to many other sea otter web sites.
  • Ask Shamu: sea otter
    Historically, the sea otter was found from the northern coast of Japan up through the Kurile Islands and the Commander Islands; across the Aleutian Islands; and down the coasts of Alaska, Canada, and the western United States to central Baja California.
  • An Introduction to Sea Otters
    Sea otters are the smallest marine mammals; they are furry creatures that spend almost all of their lives in the ocean. Although they resemble small seals, sea otters are not related to seals.
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