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         Scotland Archaeology:     more books (100)
  1. In the Shadow of the Brochs: The Iron Age in Scotland
  2. Scotland's Stone of Destiny by Nick Aitchison, 2003-05-01
  3. Historic Forfar: The Archaeological Implications of Development (Scottish Burgh Survey (Series).) by E. Patricia Dennison, Patricia Dennison, et all 2001-09
  4. Scotland Before History by Stuart Piggott, 1983-03
  5. Vikings in Scotland by James Graham-Campbell, Colleen Batey, 2001-02-15
  6. State-funded Rescue Archaeology in Scotland: Past, Present and Future (Heritage Research Papers)
  7. The Archaeology of Scotland
  8. THE INDUSTRIAL ARCHAEOLOGY OF SCOTLAND. The Highlands and Islands by John HUME, 1977
  9. Scotland: Archaeology and Early History by Graham Ritchie;And Anna Ritchie, 1981
  10. Contractual and Grant Arrangements in Historic Scotland Archaeology's Program (Heritage Policy Papers)
  11. The Industrial Archaeology of Scotland 1.The Lowlands and Borders The Industrial Archaeology of the British Isles by Hume John R., 1976
  12. SCOTLAND ARCHAEOLOGY AND EARLY HISTORY by Graham and Anna Ritchie, 1991
  13. Bracken and Archaeology (Historical Scotland Technical Advice Note) by Thomas Rees, C.M. Mills, 1999-12
  14. Burrowing Animals and Archaeology (Historical Scotland Technical Advice Note) by Andrew J. Dunwell, Roger C. Trout, 1999-12

121. From Jesus To Christ: Jesus Many Faces: Crucifixion
Jesus and Jehohanan An Archaeological Note on Cruxifixion 59 George Street Edinburgh EH2 2LQ scotland telephone 0131 225 4703 fax 0131 220 4260
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At the beginning of the summer of 1968 a team of archaeologists under the direction of V. Tzaferis discovered four cave-tombs at Giv'at ha-Mivtar (Ras el-Masaref), which is just north of Jerusalem near Mount Scopus and immediately west of the road to Nablus. The date of the tombs, revealed by the pottery in situ, ranged from the late second century B.C. until A.D. 70. These family tombs with branching chambers, which had been hewn out of soft limestone, belong to the Jewish cemetery of Jesus' time that extends from Mount Scopus in the east to the Sanhedriya tombs in the north west. The name of the man was incised on his ossuary in letters 2 cm high: Jehohanan. He was crucified probably between A.D. 7, the time of the census revolt, and 66, the beginning of the war against Rome.... According to Dr. N. Haas of the Department of Anatomy, Hebrew UniversityHadassah Medical School, Jehohanan experienced three traumatic episodes. The cleft palate on the right side and the associated asymmetries of his face likely resulted from the deterioration of his mother's diet during the first few weeks of pregnancy. The disproportion of his cerebral cranium (pladiocephaly) were caused by difficulties during birth. All the marks of violence on the skeleton resulted directly or indirectly from crucifixion. A description of Jehohanan's death would be helpful toward imaging Jesus' suffering since both were crucified by the Romans in the same century and not far from the walls of Jerusalem. The lower third of his right radial bone contains a groove that was probably caused by the friction between a nail and the bone. Hence, his arms were nailed to the patibulum through the forearms and not through the wrists, the bones of which 'were found undamaged.' It is logical to infer, therefore, that, contrary to the customary portrayal in paintings and biographies,' Jesus had his arms pierced and not his hands. We should probably translate the only two passages in the Gospels that mention of the crucified Jesus (Lk 24, Jn 20) not as 'hands', but with Hesiod, Rufus Medicus, and others as 'arms'. Hence, according to Jn 20, Jesus said to Thomas, 'place your finger here and observe my arms...'

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