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         Salmon Endangered & Threatened Species:     more detail
  1. Economic effects of management measures within the range of potential critical habitat for Snake River endangered and threatened salmon species by Daniel D Huppert, 1992
  2. Biodiversity and the recovery of threatened and endangered salmon species in the Columbia River Basin: Recovery issues for threatened and endangered Snake River salmon (Technical report) by C. R Steward, 1993
  3. Biological criteria for classification of Pacific salmon and steelhead as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act by Theodore C Bjornn, 1980
  4. Use of artificial propagation and supplementation for rebuilding salmon stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act: Recovery issues for threatened ... Snake River salmon (Technical report) by Jim Lichatowich, 1993
  5. Effects of marine mammals on Columbia River Salmon listed under the endangered species act: Recovery issues for threatened and endangered Snake River salmon (Technical report) by Donn L Park, 1993

61. Killer Whale Policy - American Cetacean Society
A threatened species is defined as any species likely to become an endangered These include the threatened Puget Sound chinook salmon and the threatened
... they're not saved yet ...
FACT SHEET ISSUES JOIN ACS ... VOLUNTEER killer whales CATEGORY: species SUBJECT: status of eastern north Pacific southern resident population of killer whales DATE: June 15, 2000
POLICY The American Cetacean Society (ACS) supports the listing of the Eastern North Pacific (ENP) southern resident killer whale population (J, K, and L pods) as a threatened or endangered species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. Further, ACS supports measures for conservation, education and research regarding the habitat of this genetically distinct population of killer whales. (Notably, per section 3(15) of the ESA the term "species" includes any subspecies, and any distinct population segment of any species which interbreeds when mature.) The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) would evaluate whether the ENP southern resident killer whale population should be listed as threatened or endangered once a petition for listing is filed. Per section 3 of the ESA, an endangered species is defined as any species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A threatened species is defined as any species likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A proposed species is defined as a species that has been proposed for listing as endangered or threatened, for which a final determination of status is to be completed within 12 months.

62. Endangered And Threatened Marine Life
A “threatened” species is one that is likely to become endangered in the T, salmon, chum (Oncorhynchus keta). T, salmon, coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch)
Endangered Species A Partial Listing of Pacific Marine Life Endangered or Threatened Before a plant or animal species can receive protection under the Endangered Species Act , it must first be placed on the Federal list of endangered and threatened wildlife and plants E=endangered; T=threatened Marine Mammals: E,T Sea-lion, Steller ( Eumetopias jubatus T Seal, Guadalupe fur ( Arctocephalus townsendi E Whale, blue ( Balaenoptera musculus E Whale, bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus E Whale, finback ( Balaenoptera physalus E Whale, humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae E Whale, right ( Balaena glacialis E Whale, sperm ( Physeter catodon Birds: E Albatross, short-tailed ( Phoebastria albatrus E Pelican, brown ( Pelecanus occidentalis E Rail, California clapper ( Rallus longirostris obsoletus E Rail, light-footed clapper ( Rallus longirostris levipes E Tern, California least ( Sterna antillarum browni Reptiles: E,T Sea turtle, green ( Chelonia mydas E Sea turtle, leatherback (

63. North Cascades National Park: Salmon On The Skagit River Watershed
A threatened species is one that is likely to become an endangered species within Some runs of salmon have become threatened, endangered, and extinct.
North Cascades
Salmon of the Skagit River Watershed ACTIVITY #1 WHERE HAVE ALL THE SALMON GONE? Background

Nature reserves, wilderness areas, and national parks like North Cascades are protected from development. Outside of the protected lands of the North Cascades Ecosystem, these habitats are destroyed or altered by humans. Harvesting of timber and the development of those lands subsequent to harvests, over-harvesting of fish, development of agricultural lands, destruction of wetlands, dams, (basically encroachment and over development) and other factors influence the population of salmon that live in the Skagit Watershed. As these areas are changed, the conditions of the Watershed changes too. Decreased water quality means that the danger of extinction increases for the salmon runs. Salmon go wherever they need to in order to locate enough food, water, shelter, and space to survive. They are anadromous fish, which means they are born fresh water and travel to the salt water and travel back again to fresh water to spawn and complete their life cycle. The salmon life cycle takes them beyond the boundaries of protected land. The degradation of salmon habitat is due to development, dams, pollution, and dredging. Check the reference page on the salmon species that utilize the Skagit River Watershed.

64. Threatened And Endangered Species
RNSP protect threatened and endangered (T E) species by minimizing potential disturbance Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), threatenedfederal
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 deems that all federally listed endangered and threatened species be restored to the point where they are again viable, self-sustaining members of their ecological communities. Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), threatened-federal; endangered-state
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis),
Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), threatened-federal
Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), threatened-federal
Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus marmoratus), threatened-federal; endangered-state
Northern Spotted Owl (strix occidentalis caurina), threatened-federal
Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), threatened-federal
Steller's Sea Lion (Eumatopias jubatus), threatened-federal
Tidewater Goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi), endangered-federal
Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus), threatened-federal
American Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)

65. ESPN Outdoors -- Federal Court Blocks Delisting Of Salmon
for the government to declare wild coho salmon threatened under the endangered species Act while not granting the same status to hatchery born salmon.
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    Federal court blocks delisting of salmon By David Kravets The two-sentence decision from the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals stops any logging along the salmon's habitat that was authorized under U.S. District Judge Michael Hogan's ruling in September. The circuit's decision will remain in place until it makes a final ruling, which could be months or years. "The logging will now stop," said Patti Goldman, an attorney with the environmental group Earthjustice in Seattle. Hogan's ruling opened the door to thousands of acres to be logged in the Umpqua National Forest and the Siskiyou National Forest. Hogan issued the delisting order in September after concluding that it made no sense for the government to declare wild coho salmon threatened under the Endangered Species Act while not granting the same status to hatchery born salmon. Environmentalists appealed. Among other things, the federal act demands that endangered or threatened species' habitats be protected. After Hogan's ruling and decision against an appeal, the National Marine Fisheries Service said it would review whether 23 of the 25 groups of Pacific salmon and steelhead protected under the Endangered Species Act should keep their listings.

66. Endangered Wildlife Species And BC Community Wildlife Festivals
threatened species are likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors salmon in BC waters have also become the focus for many communities.
Saltwater Lake River Vacations ... Forum Search

Peter Caverhill

Brian Chan

Ian Forbes

Geoff Hobson
Barry Thornton

Bald Eagle

Black Brant

Blue Grouse
Osprey ... Western Bird Watching Game Fish BC Fish Quiz Pacific Herring Salmon Watching Salmon and Creeks ... Sea-Run Cutthroat Nature Bears Endangered Wildlife Killer Whale Chronicles Killer Whale Encounters ... Outdoor Photo Tips River Fly Tactics Dual Purpose Equipment Saltwater Fly Patterns Black Bomber Hakai Thorn Coho Fly Salmon Dry Flies Silver Thorn Chinook ... Tonquin Thorn Saltwater Fly Tactics Beach Fishing Pinks Bucktailing Equipment Tips Fly Fishing Tofino ... Tides for Salmon Fly Fishing Steelheading April Rivers Campbell River Steelhead Fly Fishing Steelhead Gold River Steelhead ... Wading the River Techniques Drift Fishing Salmon Fishing with Floats Follow the Birds Opportunity to Angle ... Releasing Scorpion Fish B.C. OUTDOOR ODYSSEY
Endangered Wildlife Species and B.C. Community Wildlife Festivals
with Barry M. Thornton During the past decade many British Columbia communities have organized festivals in recognition of special wildlife species. Wildlife are an important focus for these regions and it is interesting to note that in some cases the wildlife species chosen is an endangered species. The community of Squamish holds an annual Bald eagle festival during January, recognizing the large number of these birds that concentrate in this coastal valley to feed on salmon. The Bald eagle is one bird that has just recently returned from a rare and endangered classification.

67. ThinkQuest : Library : Endangered & Extinct Species
It has more threatened and endangered species than anywhere else in the world. Pacific Northwest salmon are on the endangered species List.

68. Articles And Editorials
dams on salmon and steelhead on the endangered species list (see HR 1097), Summary of listed endangered and threatened species and recovery plans,

69. Endangered Species Bulletin: Listing Actions - Fish And Wildlife Service And Nat
salmon habitat quality continues to be threatened by water withdrawals and qualities essential for the conservation of threatened or endangered species.
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ASEE Prism Academe African American Review ... View all titles in this topic Hot New Articles by Topic Automotive Sports Top Articles Ever by Topic Automotive Sports Listing Actions - Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service publishes Endangered Species Act Endangered Species Bulletin Jan-April, 2000
Save a personal copy of this article and quickly find it again with It's free! Save it. From October 1999 through January 2000, the Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) published the following Endangered Species Act listing actions in the Federal Register. The full text of each proposed and final rule can be accessed through our website: Proposed Rules California Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense) An emergency rule to give immediate temporary protection to the Santa Barbara County population of the California tiger salamander was published by the Service in the January 19 Federal Register. The Service took this unusual step because of imminent threats to the population's survival. Concurrently, the Service published a proposal to give the population long-term protection as an endangered species.

70. Whatcom Salmon Recovery
salmon Recovery Plan endangered species Act The Clean Water Act a specific means for protecting a threatened species, and gives assurance, or coverage,

Salmon Recovery Plan

Endangered Species Act

The Clean Water Act

The Salmon Recovery Act
Wild Salmonid Policy

A variety of factors have caused salmon runs to decline or delay their recovery. Federal, state, and local governments have attempted to address these factors with laws and policies, which sometimes overlap and sometimes conflict. A number of public processes have been set up to implement or respond to these laws and policies.
Specific policies have been developed to guide management of salmon harvest, hatcheries, and habitats. They are described on the specific pages for those issues.
Endangered Species Act
The federal Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) aims to reverse the trend of human-caused extinctions of animal and plant species. Once a species is listed as either endangered ("in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range" ESA §3[6]) or threatened ("likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range" ESA §3[19]) under the ESA, a variety of federal protections are triggered. These protections include a prohibition on "take," which according to the Act means to "harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct" (§3[19]). Take may include damage to the habitat that the listed species requires to survive.
One term that is often heard in discussions about ESA and take is " 4(d) rule " or " 4(d) coverage ." Both terms refer to Section 4(d) of the ESA, which states that either the National Marine Fisheries Service or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (depending on what the species is and where it is found) shall issue regulations that are "necessary and advisable to provide for the conservation of the species." A 4(d) rule serves two functions: it provides a specific means for protecting a threatened species, and gives assurance, or coverage, to local governments (or other governmental or private entities) that the actions they authorize or perform are legally allowed under the ESA.

In 1997, NOAA Fisheries listed Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast coho salmon as threatened under the endangered species Act. Critical habitat was
JUNE 19, 2002
Good afternoon, Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee. I am William T. Hogarth, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) at the Department of Commerce. I appreciate the opportunity to be here today to discuss H.R. 4840, the "Sound Science for Endangered Species Planning Act of 2002." I commend you and the Committee for your efforts to improve implementation of the Endangered Species Act (ESA)and specifically, to ensure the best available science continues to guide agency actions and decisions regarding endangered and threatened species.
H.R. 4840 builds upon areas of consensus by codifying existing administrative policies, incorporating provisions similar to prior legislative efforts that have been supported by the previous Administration and members from both parties, and including portions of legislation introduced by members of this Committee. Although NOAA Fisheries has a few concerns that I will describe in my testimony, we anticipate that these can be resolved administratively or with the cooperation of the Committee. It is in this spirit that we join the Department of the Interior in supporting H.R. 4840, with modifications to address our concerns.

72. Endangered Species Resources For DHS Students
endangered and threatened species Positions on goals for restoring salmon populations as well as discussions of the causes and consequences of reduced
Dallas High School Library
Supports the academic and personal interests of our students Library Home Search Engines Current Events Reference ... Faculty
Endangered and Threatened Species
Library Home Curriculum Science Environment Endangered Species Links accurate as of 4-25-05 Animals Plants Comprehensive Sites
Comprehensive Sites
Endangered Species Act of 1973
Full text of this act of Congress. Endangered and Extinct Species Lists
Generate lists of plants and animals by region of the world. NatureServe Explorer
"An online encyclopedia of life." Though it provides ample authoritative information about endangered and threatened species, NatureServe also covers common plants and animals. The NatureServe organization is a nonprofit dedicated to disseminating scientific data about the world's plants, animals, and ecological communities.
Animal Info is a no-nonsense, no frills site that gives the facts you need about the world's rarest mammals, as well as endangered and threatened species.

73. LII - Results For "endangered Species"
Animal Info Information on Rare, threatened and endangered Mammals endangered species Act salmon Recovery in Clark County;query=Endangered species;subsearch=

74. FR Doc 05-13394
salmon and steelhead in the Northwest listed as threatened or endangered under P. Michael Payne, Acting Division Chief, endangered species Division,

75. Online NewsHour: Saving Salmon -- June 23, 1998
ROB McKENNA, King County Council salmon are the only endangered species that an endangered species listing for another threatened fish, the steelhead.
June 23, 1998
The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer Transcript A plan to save depleting species of salmon in Seattle is running into trouble as development continues around the area. Lee Hochberg reports. LEE HOCHBERG: A booming economy has lured thousands of newcomers to the Seattle area. They find a vibrant natural environment and waterways seemingly teeming with fish. Ironically, though, the fish that symbolizes the region and entertains shoppers at Seattle's Pike Place Market, is in peril. The federal government has proposed listing Chinook salmon, celebrated in Seattle's public art and on city buses and revered by the region's native Americans, as an endangered species. Rob Jones is from the National Marine Fisheries Service. ROB JONES, National Marine Fisheries Service: Most of our Chinook populations are really struggling, going from numbers in the millions to in some cases disappearing altogether from various areas up and down the coast. LEE HOCHBERG: The federal government has given Northwest policy makers a year to draft a plan to save the Chinook. The fish have been harmed by hydroelectric dams on Northwest rivers, over-logging, over-fishing, and urban development in Seattle and Portland. Salmon hatch in the streams of the Cascade Mountains, swim through rivers in those cities to the Pacific Ocean, then return to their birthplace years later to spawn. For the fish to recover, habitat changes have to be made all along that route, including in those two major Northwest cities. It's the first time that an urban area has been told to recover a threatened species. In Seattle, that task has fallen to King County government's top administrator, Ron Sims.

76. Coho Listing Comments -
Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) as either endangered or threatened in its Listing of the Coho as an endangered or threatened species will place
local forecasts About CFBF Contact CFBF What's New Sunday, September 25 County Farm Bureaus Issues Political Action Membership Services Online Renewal How to Join Member Benefits Leadership Farm Bureau ... Issues : CFBF Comments: State Protection of Coho Salmon
CFBF Comments: State Protection of Coho Salmon
July 22, 2002 Mr. Michael Flores, President
California Fish and Game Commission
PO Box 944209
Sacramento, CA 94244-2090 Dear Mr. Flores: California Farm Bureau Federation (CFBF) is writing to urge the California Fish and Game Commission (Commission) to find listing is not warranted for the Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) as either endangered or threatened in its' range north of and including San Francisco Bay. CFBF is an independent, non-governmental, voluntary organization of farm and ranch families that work to improve the farm, the farm family and the rural communities in which they live and work. CFBF is the state's largest farm organization, representing more than 95,000 member families in 56 counties. An improper and legally unfounded listing of the Coho will greatly impact the ability of many of our members to maintain economically viable and environmentally friendly farming and ranching operations. To that end, CFBF submits the following comments on the listing decision pending before the Commission. I. The Status Review fails to meet the requirements of CA Fish and Game Code § 2062 or CA Fish and Game Code § 2067.

77. Taipei Times - Archives
Currently 1264 species are considered threatened or endangered. In the case of the salmon, a US district judge in Portland, Oregon, last month rejected
Fri, Jul 01, 2005 News Editorials e-Industry e-Service e-Education 194392573 visits

78. Bush Greenwatch
Many other endangered and threatened species are further imperiled by EPA s For Pacific salmon species, the impact from pesticide exposure could be
Updates on the Bush Administration's environmental record, delivered to your inbox five days a week.
September 20, 2005

Critics Say EPA Withholding Information on New Orleans Contamination
September 16, 2005

Six Senate Democrats Vote to Retain Bush Mercury Rule
September 15, 2005

Global Warming Said to Increase Hurricane Intensity
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In the most recent issue of Mother Jones the growing consequences of pollution and environmental toxins for the region are highlighted in Dozens of Words for Snow, None for Pollution

79. Congressional Committee Testimony
endangered and threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin the welfare of the two endangered sucker species and the threatened coho salmon population,
ENDANGERED AND THREATENED FISHES IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN Statement of William M. Lewis, Jr., Ph.D. Chairman of the Committee on Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin National Research Council /National Academy of Sciences and Professor of Environmental Science, Director, Center for Limnology Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado before the Committee on Resources U.S. House of Representatives MARCH 13, 2002             The Klamath River Basin has an abundance of aquatic environments, including perennial streams and rivers, shallow lakes, and wetlands.  Among the great diversity of organisms that can be found in these environments are the Lost River and shortnose suckers and coho salmon belonging to the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts (SONCC) evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) of this species.  The Lost River and shortnose suckers are restricted in distribution to the Klamath River Basin, while the SONCC coho salmon is found in the Klamath River Basin and in adjoining river basins.  Because of low abundance and restricted distribution, the Lost River and shortnose suckers were listed federally as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1988.  For similar reasons, the Klamath Basin coho salmon was listed as threatened under the ESA in 1997.             The Lost River and shortnose suckers are large, long-lived species that once reached great abundances in the Klamath River Basin.  By the 1960s, it became clear that these species had decreased greatly in abundance.  Because excessive harvesting was considered a contributor to decline in the populations, fishing was restricted and presently is essentially prohibited.  The populations remain small, however, as compared with their very high abundances in the early part of the 20

80. Atlantic Salmon In The Gulf Of Maine
endangered and threatened species; Proposed endangered Status for a salmon on the list of endangered species under the endangered species Act of 1973,
Atlantic Salmon in the Gulf of Maine Subject: Atlantic Salmon in the Gulf of Maine - NMFS and FWS Announce Completion of a Status Review of U.S. Atlantic salmon populations and have determined that a distinct population segment (DPS) of Atlantic salmon in the Gulf of Maine is in danger of extinction.
[Federal Register: November 17, 1999
(Volume 64, Number 221)] [Proposed Rules]
[Page 62627-62641]
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
50 CFR Part 224 [Docket No. 991108299-9299-01;
I.D. 102299A] RIN 0648-XA39
Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17
RIN 1018-AF80 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Endangered Status for a Distinct Population Segment of Anadromous Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in the Gulf of Maine AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce; Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Interior. ACTION: Proposed Rule, notice of public hearing. DATES: Comments on this proposal and on the July 1999 Status Review announced in the October 19, 1999, Federal Register (64 FR 56297) must be received by February 15, 2000. A public hearing will be held at 6:00 pm on January 19, 2000.

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