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         Salmon Endangered & Threatened Species:     more detail
  1. Economic effects of management measures within the range of potential critical habitat for Snake River endangered and threatened salmon species by Daniel D Huppert, 1992
  2. Biodiversity and the recovery of threatened and endangered salmon species in the Columbia River Basin: Recovery issues for threatened and endangered Snake River salmon (Technical report) by C. R Steward, 1993
  3. Biological criteria for classification of Pacific salmon and steelhead as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act by Theodore C Bjornn, 1980
  4. Use of artificial propagation and supplementation for rebuilding salmon stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act: Recovery issues for threatened ... Snake River salmon (Technical report) by Jim Lichatowich, 1993
  5. Effects of marine mammals on Columbia River Salmon listed under the endangered species act: Recovery issues for threatened and endangered Snake River salmon (Technical report) by Donn L Park, 1993

41. Scientific Evaluations Of Biological Opinions On Endangered And Threatened Fishe
two fish species listed as endangered in 1988, as well as coho salmon, Committee on endangered and threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin

42. CRS Report: 98-666 - Pacific Salmon And Anadromous Trout: Management Under The E
3) While no species of anadromous trout or salmon is in danger of nearterm species, Population (ESU), Status (E-endangered T-threatened), FR Citation

Redistributed as a Service of the National Library for the Environment
98-666: Pacific Salmon and Anadromous Trout:
Management Under the Endangered Species Act
Eugene H. Buck
Senior Analyst
John R. Dandelski
Resources, Science, and Industry Division
Updated October 27, 1999
Summary Along the Pacific Coast, 26 distinct population segments of Pacific salmon and anadromous (sea-run) trout are listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). A variety of human activities have combined to greatly reduce or eliminate historic fish habitat, degrade remaining habitat, and otherwise harm anadromous fish populations. In addition, natural phenomena stress fish populations and contribute to their variable abundance. Current management efforts aim to restore the abundance of ESA-listed native northeast Pacific salmonids to historic, sustainable population levels. This report summarizes the reasons for current and proposed ESA listings and outlines efforts to protect ESA-listed species. This report will be updated periodically to reflect the changing situation. Background.

43. EPB99-8: Salmon Update
Washington now has 16 salmon species listed as threatened or endangered. The decision by National Marine Fisheries Service to list seven additional species
In September the National Marine Fisheries Service may issue a rule prohibiting many activities that harm Puget Sound Chinook salmon. Local officials hope that their efforts to craft fish recovery strategies will minimize the disruption to the local economy. To receive advance notice of Washington Research Council publications by e-mail send your e-mail address to e-PB 99:8 - August 6, 1999 Salmon Update State officials say the National Marine Fisheries Service in September likely will issue a rule prohibiting activities, unless otherwise exempted, that harm Puget Sound chinook salmon. In March, the federal agency listed seven more Pacific salmon and steelhead runs under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Washington now has 16 salmon species listed as threatened or endangered. "The decision by National Marine Fisheries Service to list seven additional species, including Puget Sound chinook, guarantees that virtually everyone in Washington State will be affected in one way or another by future efforts to comply with the ESA," according to Gov. Gary Locke’s Salmon Recovery Office In crafting fish recovery plans, local governments will more severely regulate actions that affect salmon, ranging from tree removal, paving and grading to industrial water runoff, new housing and to new bulkheads and cattle grazing.

44. Clackamas County Water Environment Services - Salmon Conservation And Recovery
This is the only type of take of an endangered species, or a threatened species (Early life stage of salmon species.) species (ESA Section 3) Any
9101 SE Sunnybrook Blvd. #441, Clackamas, Oregon 97015 Bids / RFP's Community Outreach Directions / Hours Frequent Questions ... Contact ESA Coordinator
Clackamas County
Salmon Conservation and Recovery Glossary of Terms 4(d) Rule - (ESA Section 4)
The protective rule promulgated by the lead federal agency at the time it makes a final decision to list a species as threatened. This rule is developed only for a single species at a time. The content of a 4(d) rule may be a restatement of Section 9(a) prohibitions on take of a species, but also may specify activities which have been determined to be adequately regulated and therefore can be given legal coverage for the incidental take of the listed species. (Regulations developed to enforce ESA.) Endangered Species - Any species [including subspecies or qualifying distinct population segment] which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. [ESA Section 3(6) ]. The lead federal agency for the listing of a species as endangered is responsible for reviewing the status of the species on a five-year basis. ESA - Endangered Species Act Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) - A population or group of populations of salmon that 1) is substantially reproductively isolated from other populations and 2) contributes substantially to the ecological/genetic diversity of the biological species. This term is used by NMFS in its status determinations for Anadromous salmon populations [61 FR 4721].

45. Florida Forestry Information - Threatened And Endangered Species
Commerce Department agency, has jurisdiction over marine species such as Atlantic salmon. The Florida endangered and threatened species Act of 1977
Florida Forestry Information Threatened and Endangered Species Species judged as threatened or endangered are listed by state, federal, and international agencies as well as by some private organizations. Threatened and endangered species reach their status because of one or more of five factors:
Natural Causes Extinction is recognized as a natural biological process consistent with the concepts of evolution. Based on fossil records, birds have a mean species lifespan of about 2 million years, while mammals have a mean species lifespan of about 600,000 years. Extinction by natural causes may mean the actual death of a species or the evolution of the species into one or more new forms. Overspecialization, competition, sudden climatic change, or catastrophic events such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions are natural causes of species' death. Introduced Exotic Predators Introduction of exotic species to ecosystems often disrupts natural systems, especially when a predator is introduced. Native species are seldom adapted to handle these often devastating components of their environment. Sometimes predators are introduced to control another exotic species, thus compounding the biological effects on the system. Exotic predators will inevitably turn to native fauna or flora in search of food. Nonpredatory Exotics Nonpredatory exotics are often agents of competition and/or disease. Other effects may also be attributed to their introduction.

46. Course Catalog - Wildlife University - National Wildlife Federation
The endangered species Series teaches you about endangered and threatened species. When you become involved in restoring salmon, you also lend a hand to Species Seri

47. Environmental Services
Saving salmon the endangered species Act salmon recently have been spotted on the list of threatened species under the federal endangered species Act.
Wastewater Surface Water Watersheds Endangered Species Act ... Publications ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT
Life as a salmon Challenges How the Endangered Species Act works What Tacoma is doing ... Soul Salmon Saving salmon: the Endangered Species Act
Salmon recently have been spotted on the streets of Tacoma. Check out these “ Soul Salmon ” and find out how they’ll help save their waterborne “chums.” Salmon, recognized as one of the symbols of the Puget Sound area, are disappearing from our waters. As a result, the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2000 placed the chinook salmon—as well as eight other West Coast salmon and steelhead species—on the list of threatened species under the federal Endangered Species Act.
Placement on the list means, as of January 8, 2001, it is illegal for any individual, business or government to harm the species, including anything that might significantly change their habitat. That includes introducing pollutants into the water or removing vegetation they depend on for food and cover.
The problems and solutions surrounding salmon recovery are complicated, but we’ll try to outline them here:

48. FEMA: Region X - Threatened And Endangered Species
Washington threatened/endangered species List; Idaho - threatened/endangered species List salmon, chinook (Snake R. run)(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
Hazards Assistance Flood Maps NPSC ... Region X Threatened and Endangered Species Search FEMA
FEMA Region X
About Region X Region X News Releases Disaster History ... Fire Management Assistance Grant Program Resources 130 228th Street, SW
Bothell, WA 98021
Threatened and Endangered Species The following species are federally listed as threatened (T) or endangered (E). The species on this list are placed there by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the US National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). These agencies are responsible for evaluating candidate species and determining if the species are in danger of going extinct (threatened) or on the brink of extinction (endangered). FWS is responsible for the species that reside on the continent, while NMFS addresses species that spend all or part of there life at sea in US waters. FEMA is required to follow all federal laws, includeing the endangered species act. To this end FEMA will not fund any project that adversely impacts threatened / endangered species, or their habitat. The environmental review is in place to make sure that this dosen't happen.
  • Washington - Threatened/Endangered Species List Idaho - Threatened/Endangered Species List Oregon - Threatened / Endangered Species List

49. Hildreth & Thompson Article In Restoration, Sept. 1994
threatened species are those determined likely to become an endangered So, for example, fishing practices that target listed salmon species on the
Legal Brief
An Endangered Species Act Primer
by Richard Hildreth and Jeanne Thompson Published in RESTORATION: A NEWSLETTER ABOUT SALMON,
COASTAL WATERSHEDS, AND PEOPLE September 1994 (pp. 4-5) - Oregon Sea Grant
Professor Richard Hildreth is the Co-Director of the Ocean and Coastal Law Center, University of Oregon. Jeanne Thompson earned her J.D. in 1994 from the University of Oregon.
The Endangered Species Act, signed into law by President Richard Nixon in 1973, reflects a national policy favoring the diversity of life. The federal law seeks to prevent the extinction of species that are endangered or threatened by severely restricting the circumstances under which such species can be intentionally or unintentionally "taken." This legal term means not only killed, but also harassed, harmed, and subjected to several other prohibited actions. The law does not stop at protecting listed species; it seeks to promote their recovery. Under section 4 of the Endangered Species Act, the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), is charged with listing species determined to be threatened or endangered. Endangered species are those that the agency has determined to be "in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range." Threatened species are those determined "likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future." "Interested persons" (including environmental or other organizations) can petition to have species listed.

50. Butte Environmental Council Endangered Species
endangered, threatened and Sensitive species Potentially Occurring Within The Chico Spring run chinook salmon, , threatened, threatened, Aquatic

51. Oregon List
For more information on threatened, endangered, and other species of conservation concern in salmon, Coho, Oncorhynchus kisutch, threatened, endangered
For more information on Threatened, Endangered, and other species of conservation concern in Oregon
we direct you to Oregon's Department of Fish and Wildlife page @ QUICK CLICK Mammals Birds Fish Butterflies ... Return to Top
Common Name Scientific Name Federal Status OR State Status Bat, Pacific western big-eared Corynorhinus townsendii townsendii Species of Concern Sensitive Bat, Pale western big-eared Corynorhinus townsendii pallescens Species of Concern Sensitive Bat, Pallid Antrozous pallidus Sensitive Bat, Silver-haired Lasionycteris noctivagans Sensitive Bat, Spotted Euderma maculatum Species of Concern Deer, Columbian white-tailed Odocoileus virginianus leucurus Endangered Sensitive Fisher, Pacific Martes pennanti pacifica Species of Concern Sensitive Fox, Kit Vulpes macrotis Threatened Jackrabbit, White-tailed Lepus townsendii Sensitive Lynx, North American Lynx canadensis Threatened Marten, American

52. Idaho List
Lynx, North American, Lynx canadensis, threatened, species of Concern salmon, Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, endangered threatened
Visit the Digital Atlas of Idaho for incredibly colorful and detailed information
about all the wildlife in the state.
QUICK CLICK Mammals Birds Fish Butterflies ... Return to Top
Common Name Scientific Name Federal Status ID State Status Bat, Spotted Euderma maculatum
Species of Concern Species of Concern Bat, Pacific western big-eared Corynorhinus townsendii townsendii Species of Concern Species of Concern Bear, Grizzly Ursus arctos Threatened Threatened Caribou, Woodland Rangifer tarandus caribou Endangered Endangered Chipmunk, Cliff Tamias dorsalis Species of Concern Chipmunk, Uinta Tamias umbrinus Species of Concern Fisher, Pacific Martes pennanti pacifica Species of Concern Species of Concern Fox, Kit Vulpes macrotis Species of Concern Lemming, Northern bog Synaptomys borealis Species of Concern Lynx, North American Lynx canadensis Threatened Species of Concern Mole, Coast Scapanus orarius Species of Concern Mouse, Dark kangaroo Microdipodops megacephalus Species of Concern Mouse, Little pocket

53. University Of Washington Libraries : Fisheries-oceanography Library : Endangered
Protection of threatened and endangered Aquatic species from the American Economics and the endangered species Act the Snake River salmon case study
Off-Campus Access
Fisheries-Oceanography Library
Compiled by the librarians at the Fisheries-Oceanography Library, University of Washington. This is not an exhaustive list but rather a starting point. If you need help finding information, ask a librarian for assistance.
(Note: The UW Libraries Catalog and NTIS on the Web z are available to all. Only UW-affiliated users can access the other databases.) UW LIBRARIES CATALOG The Libraries Catalog includes the book and journal holdings of all of the University of Washington Libraries collections. You can search for materials by title words, author names, subject headings, and keywords. Remember: the catalog will tell you if we own a journal but not about the contents of the journal. The Catalog is NOT the database to use to identify journal articles.
(ASFA) 1971+ ASFA indexes approximately 4500 journals worldwide covering all aspects of marine, freshwater and brackish water environments. Also, includes technical reports and conference papers. Available in all science library units.

54. 96 Suit Filed Over Klamath Basin Salmon Endangered Species Listing, Capital Pres
Suit Filed over Klamath Basin salmon endangered species Listing Reversing the threatened species listing would open protected arease to logging,
the film


Suit Filed over Klamath Basin Salmon Endangered Species Listing
by Associated Press
Capital Press - January 18(?), 2002 Suit aims to overturn NMFS listing of Southern Oregon-Northern California Coho SACRAMENTO (AP) A group that won a victory against the listing of salmon as a threatened species in Oregon said Jan 10 it will file a similar suit in the farmers-vs.-fish dispute in the Klamath River basin. The suit aims to overturn the National Marine Fisheries Service threatened species listing of the Southern Oregon-Northern California coho salmon. That helped prompt the federal government's decision to shut down water deliveries to the area's farmers last spring. Attorney Russell Brooks of the Bellevue, Wash. -based Pacific Legal Foundation accused NMFS in a statement of "using junk science to advance a political agenda. Our rivers and streams are teeming with salmon, yet farmers have been pushed into bankruptcy, businesses are closing, and a way of life is being destroyed while government officials explain away listing fish that really aren't endangered at all." The dispute revolves around the interrelationship between wild and hatchery-raised salmon.

55. Endangered And Threatened Species: Status Review Updates
endangered and threatened species Status Review Updates anadromous salmonid ESUs currently listed as endangered species Snake River sockeye salmon (O.
Endangered and Threatened Species: Status Review Updates
To From Date Tue, 31 Dec 2002 13:29:07 -0500 (EST) Reply-To Sender To unsubscribe please go to: From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [] [DO CID:fr31de02-39 Partial thread listing:
    Endangered and Threatened Species: Status Review Updates envsubset Tribal Landowner Incentive Program (T-LIP) Implementation envsubset Tribal Wildlife Grants (TWG) Program Implementation envsubset Proposed Endangered Species Habitat Bank for the Preble envsubset Endangered Species; File No. 1377 envsubset

56. Endangered And Threatened Species; Take Of Anadromous
take of adult endangered Sacramento River Winterrun Chinook salmon, threatened Central Margaret Lorenz, Acting Chief, endangered species Division,
Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous
To From Date Tue, 10 Dec 2002 12:17:16 -0500 (EST) Reply-To Sender To unsubscribe please go to: From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [] [DO CID:fr10de02-29 Partial thread listing:
    Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous (continued) Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Prudency envsubset Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel envsubset Endangered and Threatened Species; Re-opening of Comment envsubset

57. ESA--Thriving, Threatened, Or Extinct?
Currently, over 1200 species are listed as endangered or threatened, and critical More than a dozen of those reviewed show no effect on salmon and
Vol. 17, No.2 March, 2004
ESAThriving, Threatened, or Extinct?
As you may have read in the popular press and in various newsletters, the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) has received considerable attention lately. Federal agencies have proposed changes in how they exchange information and expertise with one another regarding endangered species and pesticides. More recently, a U.S. District Court judge on the West Coast responded to an ESA-based lawsuit by prohibiting the use of certain pesticides adjacent to salmon-supporting waters. For the pesticide industry and individual applicators, these actions should be viewed as clear signals that the ESA itself is not extinct.
An ESA Primer The state of Illinois also has an Endangered Species Act. As of 1999, 478 species were listed by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources' (IDNR) Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board (ESPB) as either endangered or threatened (3). The ESPB revises the list of protected species every 5 years, and thus the 2004 revision will soon be available online (

58. Open Spaces Magazine - The Endangered Species Act: Thirty Years On The Ark By Je
Those species found to be threatened or endangered are added to the list of species Coho salmon and steelhead in the lower basin, much of their habitat
Current Issue available now
Click here to subscribe online. September 25 2005 Open Spaces is published quarterly, available in bookstores Site Index Open Spaces Home Current Issue
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The Endangered Species Act: Thirty Years on the Ark By Jeff Curtis and Bob Davison Open Spaces Home Back Issues Volume Five Number Three The Endangered Species Act: Thirty Years on the Ark By Jeff Curtis and Bob Davison The Endangered Species Act: Thirty Years on the Ark
By Jeff Curtis and Bob Davison
The Endangered Species Act (ESA), the current version of which was passed in 1973, has achieved iconic significance. To those concerned about the environment, it is at the pinnacle of environmental laws . the 800-pound gorilla of a law that puts species conservation above development concerns. To developers and property rights advocates, it is often viewed as a tool radical environmentalists use to achieve political goals. This article is an attempt by two conservationists who have worked with the law over the past three decades to provide a practical explanation of why the law was enacted, how the law works, and why it is important. We also will examine why the ESA, of all environmental laws, has become so controversial and why there are continued calls for its revision. Almost 30 years of amendments, and the labors of a generation of Members of Congress and congressional staff have, for the most part, managed to enhance rather than diminish the original vision of the ESA. That vision was driven by a concern over the loss of some of the country's most notable species.

59. AEI-Brookings Joint Center
DOC endangered and threatened species threatened and endangered Status for salmon as threatened or endangered species under the endangered species Act

60. AEI-Brookings Joint Center
DOC endangered and threatened species threatened Status for Ozette Lake of Baker River sockeye salmon, previously designated as a candidate species.

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