Biology 403 - Spring '96 - Profs. Eernisse & Jones Jump to Links for sponges, cnidarians, Bilaterians, Flatworms, Pseudocoelomates, Coelomates, Priapulida (Phallus worms) Model of Fossil Priapulid http://biology.fullerton.edu/courses/biol_403/Web/zoobookmarks.html
Extractions: Visit the source of this page's Featured Image at: Home Page of Expert on Fossil Whales, Mark Uhen Jump to Links for Microorganisms, Viruses, Unicellular Eukaryotes, Plants, ... Show Marine Biology Links by Topic Find Something Cool? Send a Suggested Link. Porifera (sponges) Porifera Web Page Porifera: Prof. Fankboner's Selected Images
First Life metazoa can be grouped in three basic categories spongelike animals, cnidarians, and worms. The sponges, and cnidarians (corals and sea anemones), http://www.geocities.com/eurekaproj/evolution/fstlife.html
Extractions: Stromatolites are layered mounds, columns, and sheets found in the rock. They were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria , a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe growing on a sea floor. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic cells (the simplest form of modern carbon-based life) which lack a DNA-packaging nucleus. This simple organism would be the only life on Earth for the next 2 billion years. Very rarely, stromatolites are still forming today in places such as Shark Bay, Australia. The salinity of the water is very high in this bay, and basically the only life that can survive is cyanobacteria. Under normal ocean conditions, the cyanobacteria would be eaten by marine creatures such as snails. In this special case however, columns and mounds are forming as can be seen in the picture to the left. The first multi-celled animals (metazoa) evolved over 600 million years ago. Primitive metazoa can be grouped in three basic categories: sponge-like animals, cnidarians, and worms. The sponges, and cnidarians (corals and sea anemones), are the most primitive with about 11 specialized cell types. Worms and higher metazoa have approximately 55 specialized cells.
TWO PAGE-OUTLINE EXAMPLES Ch sponges and cnidarians are two layers thick; Sponge cells don t form tissues, Mollusks and Segmented worms. One shelled mollusks are called gastropods http://schools.monterey.k12.ca.us/~pgmiddle/staff/dacu/2pageoutline.htm
Extractions: TWO PAGE-OUTLINE EXAMPLES Ch.12 Science Pages 338-339 Mrs. Dacuyan's Seventh Grade Class Kenny Neely, What is an animal? Animals many celled find and digest their own food Invertebrates and Vertebrate Invertebrates are animals without backbones Vertebrates are animals with backbones Bilateral, Radial and No Symmetry Animals that have body parts arranged the same way on both sides have bilateral symmetry (like humans) Animals with body parts arranged in a circle around a central point have radial symmetry (like a seastar) Animals with no definite shape are called asymmetrical Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms and Roundworms Sponges and Cnidarians Are only two layers thick Sponge cells do not from tissues, organs or organ systems Cnidarian bodies have tissues and have radial symmetry Flatworms and roundworms Both have bilateral symmetry Both have parasitic and free-living members Mollusks and Segmented Worms Mollusks Mollusks with one shell are gastropods Mollusks with two shells are bivalves Cephalopods Have a foot divided into tentacles They have no outside shell They have a closed circulatory system Annelids Have a body cavity that separates the internal organs from the body wall They have setae, bristle-like structures that help annelids move
Extractions: Because of its bright colors, this worm is very popular with divers. Settles in big colonies on hard corals of the species Porites. This species is ultra sensitive to light and pressure changes. When disturbed they are quickly withdrawn into the tube. Welcome Cartilaginous Fishes Bony Fishes Cnidarians ... Reptiles
The Cambrian Radiation And Other Associated Stuff In contrast to sponges and cnidarians, worms have evolved complex organ systems made from specialised cells. All sponges and most cnidarians are attached to http://www.geology.ucdavis.edu/~cowen/~GEL107/Cambrian.html
Extractions: Eukaryotes come in two grades of organization: single-celled (protists) and multicellular (plants, animals, and fungi). The world today is full of complex multicellular plants and animals: how, why, and when did they evolve from protists? A single-celled eukaryote or protist can carry chlorophyll (it can be an autotrophic, photosynthetic, "alga"), it can eat other organisms (it can be an organotrophic, "protozoan" "animal"), or it may do both. We know that a very diverse array of plankton existed by 800 Ma, because they are known as fossils. Acritarchs are spherical microfossils with thick and complex organic walls. They are probably dinoflagellates that spent most of their life floating in the plankton. But many amoebalike protists do not have cell walls made of cellulose and so do not preserve well. It's possible that while the surface layers of Proterozoic oceans had huge numbers of floating plankton, Proterozoic seafloors were crawling with successful populations of protists consuming the rich food supplies available in bacterial mats. A flagellate protist is a single cell with a lashing filament, a flagellum (plural, flagella), that moves it through the water. A sponge is the simplest multicellular variation on this theme. It contains many similar flagellated cells arranged so that they generate and direct water currents efficiently. Sponges are more advanced than simple colonies of choanoflagellates because they also have specialized sets of cells to form a body wall, to digest and distribute the food they collect, and to construct a stiffening skeletal framework of organic or mineral protein that allows them to become large without collapsing into a heap of jelly. Sponges are thus
PH@School: Biology: Student Chapter 26 You will examine trends in animal evolution and then review the form and function of sponges, cnidarians, and unsegmented worms. Chapter Outline http://www.phschool.com/atschool/biology/Elephant/Student_Area/MLB_S_CHAP26.html
Planet Diary - Textbook Correlations Chapter 1 sponges, cnidarians, and worms. The World s Coral Reefs. Chapter 3 Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles. The World s Coral Reefs http://www.phschool.com/science/planetdiary/textbook_correlations/ph_sx_05_life.
Extractions: Preparing for a Trip Toxins Found in Microscopic Flora The World's Coral Reefs The World's Coral Reefs Endangered Species in Your State Cellular Invaders Radiation and You Preparing for a Trip UV Light, CFCs, and the Ozone Layer Toxins Found in Microscopic Flora Cellular Invaders Photochemical Smog Cellular Invaders
Extractions: Course Descriptions This information will help you match the courses you have taken with those required by the breadth and/or depth disciplines. Please use the worksheets ( Biology Chemistry Geology, Physics or Breadth ) to record the matches of the required courses with courses you have successfully completed. Required Breadth Courses BIOL 1402 An introduction to plant biology with emphasis on relationship of structure and function in plants, principles of classification and ecology, and a brief survey of the plant kingdom, including evolutionary relationships. Prerequisite: BIOL 1401 or consent of instructor. Four hrs. lect., 3 hrs. lab. BIOL 1403 An introduction to animal biology with emphasis on relationship of structure and function in animals, principles of classification and ecology, and a brief survey of the animal kingdom, including evolutionary relationships. Prerequisites: BIOL 1401 and 1402 or consent of instructor. Four hrs. lect., 3 hrs. lab.
Proterozoic Era sponges, cnidarians, and worms. These three groups clearly have a common Protist ancestor which was probably a single celled flagellate organism. http://www.as.wvu.edu/~kgarbutt/EvolutionPage/History2.htm
Extractions: Proterozoic Era 543 - 2500 mya Oxygen - the First Case of Pollution? Oxygen, the waste product of this, built up in the atmosphere reaching 1% of the atmosphere by 2 billion years ago. Uranites UO Can only accumulate at O levels lower than 1%. Not found in rocks younger than 2300 mya Red Beds Iron Oxides date from 2300 mya Decline in Banded iron beds rare after 1800 mya Sedimentary copper deposits appear in 1700 mya NB copper only found in proteins of eukaryotes. A More Efficient Metabolism In the presence of free O a new form of respiration evolved which was much more efficient than anaerobic respiration Aerobic respiration is significantly more efficient than anaerobic respiration 36 vs. 2 ATP Evolution of the nucleus Packaged DNA is protected form damage - elaborate cellular mechanisms exist to protect the DNA one the simplest is the nuclear membrane The oldest fossils of Eukaryotes are about 1.2 billion years old They were probably anaerobic Archezoans These protists lack both mitochondria and plastids E.g.
Age Of Animals Some of those shown in the drawing are sponges, cnidarians, worms, trilobites, anomalocaris, marrella, hallucigenia, sea scorpions, and brachiopods. http://universe-review.ca/R10-19-animals.htm
Extractions: MYA = million years ago, FA = first appearance. Vendian Period, 600-540 MYA For most of the nearly 4 billion years that life has existed on Earth, evolution produced little beyond bacteria, plankton, and multi-celled algae. But beginning about 600 million years ago in the Precambrian, the fossil record speaks of more rapid change. First, there was the rise and fall of mysterious creatures of the "Vendian biota" or "Ediacara fauna" (see Figure 01a), named for the fossil site in Australia where they were first discovered. The question of what these fossils are is still not settled to everyone's satisfaction; at various times they have been considered algae, lichens, giant protozoans, or even a separate kingdom of life unrelated to anything living today. Some of these fossils are simple blobs that are hard to interpret and could represent almost anything. Some are most like cnidarians, worms, or soft-bodied relatives of the arthropods. Others are less Cambrian Period, 540-500 MYA
Extractions: Frilled Anemones bloom on a shipwreck. Corals anemones , and hydroids are Cnidarians , ( pronounced nee-darian ) all closely related to jellyfishes . Most Cnidarians alternate a generation of the sessile polyps shown here with a generation of mobile medusae or jellyfish . Thus many medusas and polyps are actually the same species, merely in different generations. This is how seemingly fixed corals medusa , but for the majority it is not known.
Invertebrates 4 cnidarians are also simple aquatic animals like sponges, They can be divided into three classes bristle worms, earthworms, and leeches. http://www.edhelper.com/AnimalReadingComprehension_99_1.html
Extractions: Invertebrates With over 2 million known animal species on Earth, 98% of them are invertebrates. Invertebrates are animals that don't have backbones. They live in a variety of environments, from hot and unbearable deserts to frigid and equally unbearable polar regions. They also come in an assortment of shapes and colors. To better understand invertebrates, scientists group them into eight major categories. Here are the categories and a fact or two about each category: Arthropods are invertebrates with hard outer shells (exoskeletons), with jointed legs, and with segmented bodies. Since about 75% of all animal species are arthropods, they represent the largest invertebrate group. Insects (such as butterflies, fleas, and beetles), myriapods (such as centipedes and millipedes), crustaceans (such as crabs, pill woodlice, and lobsters), arachnids (such as spiders, scorpions, and ticks), and horseshoe crabs are all examples of arthropods. Sponges are the simplest of all animals. Inhabiting mostly oceans but occasionally freshwater, they are headless and nerveless. As their movement is very difficult to detect, and they always attach to rocks, sponges were once thought to be aquatic plants! Sponges feed through a filter system. Thousands of pores covering the outside of a sponge pump water into the sponge's body. Collar cells lining the inside of the sponge sort out planktons or other microorganisms from the water. Once food particles are trapped and digested by collar cells, sponges expel the water through an opening at the top of the sponge.
Arctic Ocean Biodiversity: Sea Bottom sponges, cnidarians, tunicates, brittle stars and various worms are also found, but they are less frequent. The Arctic deepsea animals occur in low http://www.sfos.uaf.edu/research/arcdiv/seabottom/
Science 6 sponges, cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Identify flatworms and roundworms as two phyla of worms and give examples of each. VOCABULARY sponge http://www.hsv.k12.al.us/schools/middle/whitems/Class_Info/Teacher_Pages/Carden-
Mr. Waite S Science Class PNL for Zoology 4 Protista, sponges, Cnidaria January 31 (Simple Animalssponges, cnidarians, Flat worms, Round worms); February 7 (Segmented worms http://mm.csdmail.com:16080/~jwait/science.html
Orrville High School Annelids Segmented worms pages 733 - 737 Unit Title, Chapter 35 - sponges, cnidarians and Ctenophores - pages 692 - 703 http://www.orrville.k12.oh.us/hs/lessonplans/curtis/biology/
Extractions: Subject: Biology Lesson Plans for the Week of: May - 2 - 05 Teacher: Curtis MONDAY Unit Title Chapter 35 and 36 Objective All above from the 2 chapters Activity Taking of Chapter Tests Assessment Graded Test TUESDAY Unit Title Chapter 37 - Sec. Annelids - Segmented Worms pages 733 - 737 Objective Explain how earthworms move, describe their system of organs, distinguish between the three classes of annelids Activity Notes, Packet section 2 chapter 37 Assessment Graded work and test chapter 37 WEDNESDAY Unit Title Chapter 37 - Sec. Annelids - Segmented Worms pages 733 - 737 Objective Explain how earthworms move, describe their system of organs, distinguish between the three classes of annelids Activity Disection of earthworm Assessment Graded work and test chapter 37 THURSDAY Unit Title Chapter 37 - Section - Mollusca pages 724 - 732 Objective Identify features shared by mollusks,Describe the structure and function of the Radula Activity Notes and Packet section 1 Assessment Test chapter 37 FRIDAY Unit Title Chapter 37 - Section - Mollusca pages 724 - 732 Objective Name the characteristics of the 4 classes od mollusks Activity Disection of clam Assessment Test chapter 37 Subject: Biology Lesson Plans for the Week of:April 18 - 2005 Teacher: Curtis MONDAY Unit Title Chapter 35 - Section 2 -Cnidarians- pages 696 - 702 Objective Name and describe the two Cnidarian body types,List the characteristics of Cnidarians,Identify 3 groups of Cnidarians
A Response To Morton Ediacaran fauna to jellyfish (cnidarians) and worms, Conway Morris says In turning his attention away from sponges and cnidarians, Conway Morris http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/2001/PSCF6-01Bolin.html
Extractions: firstname.lastname@example.org From: PSCF (June 2001): 137-139. G lenn Morton offered a review of the book, Creation, Evolution, and Modern Science PSCF 53 [March 2001]: 63-4), which I edited and wrote most of the chapters. Even a cursory reading of the book itself will allow most to realize that Morton's negative and hostile review fails to reflect accurately the book's intent, content, and audience. I offer a few rebuttals and will let the reader decide how to interpret Morton's other comments. It seems clear to me that Morton expects any book dealing with scientific issues to be written on a scientific scholarly level. My experience has been that this approach turns the scientific novice away, therefore defeating the purpose of education. First, I will address Morton's factual charges and then answer his concern of the level of scholarship. Morton chides me for not quoting from Cambrian explosion authority Simon Conway Morris's 1998 book
Extractions: Mr. Jacobs Web Site 7th Grade "Organization is the Key to Success" - " Practice Makes Permanent" - "Be Nice and Work Hard" Click on a tab to take you where you want to go! Metric System, significant figures, Calculation Problems weathering, erosion, deposition, wind, waves, glaciers PowerPoint, Geologic time PowerPoint, Cell membrane lab sponges, cnidarians, worms, insects, crustaceans, arachnids fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals PowerPoint, meiosis skeletal, muscular, circulatory, digestive, reparatory, nervous First Semester Exam Information Disease Project information sheet Webquest! Sites for your individual component How to arrange your disease project folder (individual component) Invent Cool Tools! Craftsman- NSTA "Young Inventors Awards Program" Click here for Rules and Entry Form Information Measurement Unit How much do I weigh on the moon? Metric System "Powers of 10" Review for Test Water, Weathering, Erosion, Paleontology Unit Sand Hills Laboratory Information "Problem, Materials, Procedure" (page 70)