Newsletter 16.3 Fall 2001 (Conservation At The Getty) It is also regarded by many African people around the world as a symbol of African The local indigenous communities, too, consider the place one of http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications/newsletters/16_3/news_in_cons1.ht
Extractions: Science Field Projects Education Publications and Videos ... Newsletter 16.3 (Fall 2001) Heritage Management in Africa By Webber Ndoro For some time, cultural heritage management in Africa has been mainly concerned with the preservation and presentation of heritage sites from a technical point of view. The emphasis has been on the preservation of the architecturally spectacular places, such as the pyramids of Egypt and Sudan, the forts and castles of Ghana, and the stone monuments of Zimbabwe. Although heritage management systems in Africa are slowly changing, in most cases management focuses on the tangible elements of the heritage and overemphasizes the monumental and archaeological aspects. Communities and Their Heritage The major problems with most efforts to preserve and present cultural heritage in Africa seem to emanate from a failure to understand fully the cultural significance of the heritage and to appreciate its value to local communities. Following independence, many African nations realized the value of the past in nation building and the need to restore cultural pride, which had been seriously eroded by colonialism. It is thus surprising that the interests of local communities are often still ignored at the expense of international guidelines and frames of operation. Although this situation is changing, it also appears that despite the attainment of independence, heritage management in Africa has tended to assume that local communities are irrelevant to the "scientific" methods of managing their own heritage.
Mozambique (09/05) Facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, Religions Christian 30%, Muslim 17%, indigenous African and other beliefs 45%. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/7035.htm
Zimbabwe Home Botswana lies to the southwest and South africa to the south (its border Stretching over 4km, most of the people at Great Zimbabwe lived outside the http://www.questconnect.org/africa_zimbabwe.htm
Extractions: Geography and Climate The country of Zimbabwe is 390,580 sq km and is bordered on all sides by other countries. Zambia lies to the northwest with the Zambezi river and its Victoria Falls forming the border. Mozambique lies to the northeast with its border formed by the Eastern Highlands. Botswana lies to the southwest and South Africa to the south (its border formed by the Limpopo River). The northwest portion of the country consists mainly of plateaus interspersed with giant granite outcroppings (many of these are covered with rock art from the early San people). The northeast is where the Eastern Highlands with their forests and lakes lie. The southern portion of the country consists of the level savannah of the Save Basin. The months from May - October on the plateau are very pleasant with little rain. The days are warm and the nights cool. The lower areas and the Zambezi Valley are warmer and more humid, but still with little rain. The months from November - April are the rainy months and the temperatures can be much warmer.
Focus 16 - Language Policy One boy shouts out shangaan! He means Xitsonga. Anyone else? For the vastmajority of rural African people, and those living in less linguistically http://www.hsf.org.za/focus_16/f16Eleven_one.html
Extractions: Simon Dagut investigates IF YOU SOMETIMES feel depressed about the future of South Africa, a prescription far more effective than Prozac is to visit a Grade 8 class at Barnato Park High School, in Berea, a district of high-rise flats in inner-city Johannesburg. Sited on what was once the ostentatious home of the randlord Barney Barnato, it contains an excellent senior school, run by skilled and dedicated teachers and filled with happy and enthusiastic teenagers. As the National Education Policy Investigation of 1992 pointed out in its report on language issues, this is a recipe for continued and worsened class division. As race eventually becomes a less important divide, command of English will become ever more important as a marker of status and of access to all the desirable trappings that come with being middle class. Perhaps the Grade 8 pupil at Barnato Park who was worried about being taking for a snob is on to something. Most of the solution, of course, lies in education. To suppose that there is a large supply of such teachers in South Africa is pure fantasy. There are precious few teachers who can teach effectively in English and Asmal has recently wondered aloud whether some teachers are earning their pay. Williams, in addition to teaching at Jeppe, also trains teachers in Orange Farm. There, she says, it is more a matter of enabling teachers to construct a basic spelling lesson than training them in the art of multilingual OBE.
Go Single Travel - EcoLife Conference Group Packages Leaving the Kruger Park behind we visit a traditional shangaan village to meetwith the local people and learn about their unique culture and proud heritage http://www.singletravel.co.za/ecolife_conferences_groups.html
Extractions: Bureau of African Affairs September 2004 Background Note: Mozambique Mozambique flag is three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book. PROFILE OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Mozambique Geography Area: 799,380 sq. km.; about twice the size of California. Major cities: CapitalMaputo (pop. 1,100,000 est.) Beira, Matola, Nampula, Quelimane, Tete, Nacala. Terrain: Varies from lowlands to high plateau. Climate: Tropical to subtropical. People Nationality: Noun and adjectiveMozambican(s). Population (2003 est.): 18.5 million; 48.2% male and 51.8% female. Annual population growth rate (2002): 1.9%. Ethnic groups: Makua, Tsonga, Makonde, Shangaan, Shona, Sena, Ndau, and other indigenous groups, and approximately 10,000 Europeans, 35,000 Euro-Africans, and 15,000 South Asians. Religions: Christian 30%, Muslim 17%, indigenous African and other beliefs 45%. Languages: Portuguese (official), various indigenous languages. Education: Mean years of schooling (adults over 25): men 2.1, women 1.2. Primary school attendance (1999)32.6%. Adult literacy (2002)45.5%. Health: Infant mortality rate124/1,000. Life expectancy (2002)41.1 years. Work force (10.7 million est. 1997): Agriculture88%; industry and commerce8.5%; public sector3%. Government Type: Multi-party democracy. Independence: June 25, 1975. Constitution: November 1990. Branches: ExecutivePresident, Council of Ministers. LegislativeNational Assembly, municipal assemblies. JudicialSupreme Court, provincial, district, and municipal courts. Administrative subdivisions: 10 provinces, 224 districts, and 33 municipalities, of which Maputo City is the largest. Political parties: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO); Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO); numerous small parties. Suffrage: Universal adult, 18 years and older. Economy GDP (2000): $3.9 billion. Annual economic (GDP) growth rate (2003): 7%. Per capita income (2002.): $210. Natural resources: Coal, natural gas, titanium ore, tantalite, graphite, iron ore, semi-precious stones, and arable land. Agriculture (23.3% of GDP): Exportscashews, corn, cotton, sugar, sorghum, copra, tea, citrus fruit, bananas, and tobacco. Domestically consumed food cropscorn, pigeon peas, cassava, rice, beef, pork, chicken, and goat. Industry (31% of GDP): Typesaluminum, consumer goods, light machinery, garments, food processing, and beverages. Trade: Imports (2003)$1.24 billion: mineral products, merchandise and nonspecific products, machinery equipment and electrical machinery. Major suppliers (in declining order) South Africa, Australia, United States. Exports (2003)$910 million: metal and products, mineral products, live animals and products. Major markets (in declining order)Belgium, South Africa, Spain. PEOPLE Mozambique's major ethnic groups encompass numerous subgroups with diverse languages, dialects, cultures, and histories. Many are linked to similar ethnic groups living in neighboring countries. The north-central provinces of Zambezia and Nampula are the most populous, with about 45% of the population. The estimated 4 million Makua are the dominant group in the northern part of the countrythe Sena and Ndau are prominent in the Zambezi valley, and the Tsonga and Shangaan dominate in southern Mozambique. Despite the influence of Islamic coastal traders and European colonizers, the people of Mozambique have largely retained an indigenous culture based on small-scale agriculture. Mozambique's most highly developed art forms have been wood sculpture, for which the Makonde in northern Mozambique are particularly renowned, and dance. The middle and upper classes continue to be heavily influenced by the Portuguese colonial and linguistic heritage. During the colonial era, Christian missionaries were active in Mozambique, and many foreign clergy remain in the country. According to the national census, about 20%-30% of the population is Christian, 15%-20% is Muslim, and the remainder adheres to traditional beliefs. Under the colonial regime, educational opportunities for black Mozambicans were limited, and 93% of that population was illiterate. In fact, most of today's political leaders were educated in missionary schools. After independence, the government placed a high priority on expanding education, which reduced the illiteracy rate to about two-thirds as primary school enrollment increased. Unfortunately, in recent years school construction and teacher training enrollments have not kept up with population increases. With post-war enrollments reaching all-time highs, the quality of education has suffered. HISTORY Mozambique's first inhabitants were San hunter and gatherers, ancestors of the Khoisani peoples. Between the first and fourth centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking peoples migrated from the north through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas. The Bantu were farmers and ironworkers. When Portuguese explorers reached Mozambique in 1498, Arab-trading settlements had existed along the coast and outlying islands for several centuries. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts became regular ports of call on the new route to the east. Later, traders and prospectors penetrated the interior regions seeking gold and slaves. Although Portuguese influence gradually expanded, its power was limited and exercised through individual settlers who were granted extensive autonomy. As a result, investment lagged while Lisbon devoted itself to the more lucrative trade with India and the Far East and to the colonization of Brazil. By the early 20th century the Portuguese had shifted the administration of much of the country to large private companies, controlled and financed mostly by the British, which established railroad lines to neighboring countries and supplied cheapoften forcedAfrican labor to the mines and plantations of the nearby British colonies and South Africa. Because policies were designed to benefit white settlers and the Portuguese homeland, little attention was paid to Mozambique's national integration, its economic infrastructure, or the skills of its population. After World War II, while many European nations were granting independence to their colonies, Portugal clung to the concept that Mozambique and other Portuguese possessions were overseas provinces of the mother country, and emigration to the colonies soared. Mozambique's Portuguese population at the time of independence was about 250,000. The drive for Mozambican independence developed apace, and in 1962 several anti-colonial political groups formed the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), which initiated an armed campaign against Portuguese colonial rule in September 1964. After 10 years of sporadic warfare and major political changes in Portugal, Mozambique became independent on June 25, 1975. The last 30 years of Mozambique's history have reflected political developments elsewhere in the 20th century. Following the April 1974 coup in Lisbon, Portuguese colonialism collapsed. In Mozambique, the military decision to withdraw occurred within the context of a decade of armed anti-colonial struggle, initially led by American-educated Eduardo Mondlane, who was assassinated in 1969. When independence was achieved in 1975, the leaders of FRELIMO's military campaign rapidly established a one-party state allied to the Soviet bloc and outlawed rival political activity. FRELIMO eliminated political pluralism, religious educational institutions, and the role of traditional authorities. The new government gave shelter and support to South African (ANC) and Zimbabwean (ZANU) liberation movements while the governments of first Rhodesia and later apartheid South Africa fostered and financed an armed rebel movement in central Mozambique called the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO). Civil war, sabotage from neighboring states, and economic collapse characterized the first decade of Mozambican independence. Also marking this period were the mass exodus of Portuguese nationals, weak infrastructure, nationalization, and economic mismanagement. During most of the civil war, the government was unable to exercise effective control outside of urban areas, many of which were cut off from the capital. An estimated 1 million Mozambicans perished during the civil war, 1.7 million took refuge in neighboring states, and several million more were internally displaced. In the third FRELIMO party congress in 1983, President Samora Machel conceded the failure of socialism and the need for major political and economic reforms. He died, along with several advisers, in a suspicious 1986 plane crash. His successor, Joaquim Chissano, continued the reforms and began peace talks with RENAMO. The new constitution enacted in 1990 provided for a multi-party political system, market-based economy, and free elections. The civil war ended in October 1992 with the Rome General Peace Accords. Under supervision of the ONUMOZ peacekeeping force of the United Nations, peace returned to Mozambique. By mid-1995 the more than 1.7 million Mozambican refugees who had sought asylum in neighboring Malawi, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Zambia, Tanzania, and South Africa as a result of war and drought had returned, as part of the largest repatriation witnessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, a further estimated 4 million internally displaced returned to their areas of origin. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS Mozambique is a multi-party democracy under the 1990 constitution. The executive branch comprises a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers. There is a National Assembly and municipal assemblies. The judiciary comprises a Supreme Court and provincial, district, and municipal courts. Suffrage is universal at 18. In 1994 the country held its first democratic elections. Joaquim Chissano was elected President with 53% of the vote, and a 250-member National Assembly was voted in with 129 FRELIMO deputies, 112 RENAMO deputies, and 9 representatives of three smaller parties that formed the Democratic Union (UD). Since its formation in 1994, the National Assembly has made progress in becoming a body increasingly more independent of the executive. By 1999, more than one-half (53%) of the legislation passed originated in the Assembly. After some delays, in 1998 the country held its first local elections to provide for local representation and some budgetary authority at the municipal level. The principal opposition party, RENAMO, boycotted the local elections, citing flaws in the registration process. Independent slates contested the elections and won seats in municipal assemblies. Turnout was very low. In the aftermath of the 1998 local elections, the government resolved to make more accommodations to the opposition's procedural concerns for the second round of multiparty national elections in 1999. Working through the National Assembly, the electoral law was rewritten and passed by consensus in December 1998. Financed largely by international donors, a very successful voter registration was conducted from July to September 1999, providing voter registration cards to 85% of the potential electorate (more than 7 million voters). The second general elections were held December 3-5, 1999, with high voter turnout. International and domestic observers agreed that the voting process was well organized and went smoothly. Both the opposition and observers subsequently cited flaws in the tabulation process that, had they not occurred, might have changed the outcome. In the end, however, international and domestic observers concluded that the close result of the vote reflected the will of the people. President Chissano won the presidency with a margin of 4% points over the RENAMO-Electoral Union coalition candidate, Afonso Dhlakama, and began his 5-year term in January 2000. FRELIMO increased its majority in the National Assembly with 133 out of 250 seats. RENAMO-UE coalition won 116 seats, one went independent, and no third parties are represented. The opposition coalition did not accept the National Election Commission's results of the presidential vote and filed a formal complaint to the Supreme Court. One month after the voting, the court dismissed the opposition's challenge and validated the election results. The opposition did not file a complaint about the results of the legislative vote. The second local elections, involving 33 municipalities with some 2.4 million registered voters, took place in November 2003. This was the first time that FRELIMO, RENAMO-UE, and independent parties competed without significant boycotts. The 24% turnout was well above the 15% turnout in the first municipal elections. FRELIMO won 28 mayoral positions and the majority in 29 municipal assemblies, while RENAMO won 5 mayoral positions and the majority in 4 municipal assemblies. The voting was conducted in an orderly fashion without violent incidents. However, the period immediately after the elections was marked by objections about voter and candidate registration and vote tabulation, as well as calls for greater transparency. In May 2004, the government approved a new general elections law that contained innovations based on the experience of the 2003 municipal elections. Presidential and National Assembly elections will take place December 1-2, 2004. The two principal presidential candidates are expected to be Armando Guebuza of FRELIMO and Afonso Dhlakama of RENAMO. Principal Government Officials PresidentJoaquim Alberto Chissano Prime MinisterLuisa Diogo Minister of Foreign Affairs and CooperationLeonardo Simao Minister of Planning and FinanceLuisa Diogo Minister of National DefenseTobias Dai Minister of the InteriorAlmerino Manhenjev Minister of Industry and CommerceCarlos Morgado Ambassador to the United StatesArmando Panguene Mozambique maintains an embassy in the United States at 1990 M Street, NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036; tel: 202-293-7146. ECONOMY Macroeconomic Review Alleviating poverty. At the end of the civil war in 1992, Mozambique ranked among the poorest countries in the world. It still ranks among the least developed nations with very low socioeconomic indicators. In the last decade, however, it has experienced a notable economic recovery. Per capita GDP in 2000 was estimated at $222; in the mid-1980s, it was $120. With a high foreign debt (originally $5.7 billion at 1998 net present value) and a good track record on economic reform, Mozambique was the first African country to receive debt relief under the initial HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries) Initiative. In April 2000, Mozambique qualified for the Enhanced HIPC program as well and attained its completion point in September 2001. This led to the Paris Club members agreeing in November 2001 to substantially reduce the remaining bilateral debt. This led to the complete forgiveness of a considerable volume of bilateral debt. The United States has finished this process and forgiven Mozambique's debt. Rebounding growth. The resettlement of war refugees and successful economic reform have led to a high growth rate: the average growth rate from 1993 to 1999 was 6.7%; from 1997 to 1999, it averaged more than 10% per year. The devastating floods of early 2000 slowed GDP growth to a 2.1%. A full recovery was achieved with growth of 14.8% in 2001. In 2003, the growth rate was 7%. The government projects the economy to continue to expand between 7%-10% a year for the next 5 years, although rapid expansion in the future hinges on several major foreign investment projects, continued economic reform, and the revival of the agriculture, transportation, and tourism sectors. More than 75% of the population engages in small scale agriculture, which still suffers from inadequate infrastructure, commercial networks, and investment. Yet 88% of Mozambique's arable land is still uncultivated; focusing economic growth in this sector is a major challenge for the government. Low inflation. The government's tight control of spending and the money supply, combined with financial sector reform, successfully reduced inflation from 70% in 1994 to less than 5% from 1998-99. Economic disruptions stemming from the devastating floods of 2000 caused inflation to jump to 12.7% that year, and it was 13% in 2003. The value of Mozambique's currency, the Metical, lost nearly 50% of its value against the dollar since December 2000, although in late 2001 it began to stabilize. Since then, it has held steady at about MZM 24,000 to U.S.$1. Extensive economic reform. Economic reform has been extensive. More than 1,200 state-owned enterprises (mostly small) have been privatized. Preparations for privatization and/or sector liberalization are underway for the remaining parastatals, including telecommunications, electricity, ports, and the railroads. The government frequently selects a strategic foreign investor when privatizing a parastatal. Additionally, customs duties have been reduced, and customs management has been streamlined and reformed. The government introduced a highly successful value-added tax in 1999 as part of its efforts to increase domestic revenues. Plans for 2003-04 include Commercial Code reform; comprehensive judicial reform; financial sector strengthening; continued civil service reform; and improved government budget, audit, and inspection capability. Improving trade imbalance. Imports remain almost 40% greater than exports, but this is a significant improvement over the 4:1 ratio of the immediate post-war years. In 2003, imports were $1.24 billion and exports were $910 million. Support programs provided by foreign donors and private financing of foreign direct investment mega-projects and their associated raw materials, have largely compensated for balance-of-payments shortfalls. The medium-term outlook for exports is encouraging, since a number of foreign investment projects should lead to substantial export growth and a better trade balance. MOZAL, a large aluminum smelter that commenced production in mid-2000, has greatly expanded the nation's trade volume. Traditional Mozambican exports include cashews, shrimp, fish, copra, sugar, cotton, tea, and citrus fruits. Most of these industries are being rehabilitated. As well, Mozambique is less dependent on imports for basic food and manufactured goods because of steady increases in local production. SADC trade protocol. In December 1999, the Council of Ministers approved the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Trade Protocol. The Protocol will create a free trade zone among more than 200 million consumers in the SADC region. The 10-year implementation process of the SADC Trade Protocol began in 2002 with the immediate elimination of duties on a large list of "zero" rated goods. In 2003, the top tariff rate was lowered from 30% to 25%. Mozambique has also joined the WTO. FOREIGN RELATIONS While allegiances dating back to the liberation struggle remain relevant, Mozambique's foreign policy has become increasingly pragmatic. The twin pillars of Mozambique's foreign policy are maintenance of good relations with its neighbors and maintenance and expansion of ties to development partners. During the 1970s and early 1980s, Mozambique's foreign policy was inextricably linked to the struggles for majority rule in Rhodesia and South Africa as well as superpower competition and the Cold War. Mozambique's decision to enforce UN sanctions against Rhodesia and deny that country access to the sea led Ian Smith's regime to undertake overt and covert actions to destabilize the country. Although the change of government in Zimbabwe in 1980 removed this threat, the apartheid regime in South Africa continued to finance the destabilization of Mozambique. The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African governments. This process gained momentum with South Africa's elimination of apartheid, which culminated in the establishment of full diplomatic relations in October 1993. While relations with neighboring Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania show occasional strains, Mozambique's ties to these countries remain strong. In the years immediately following its independence, Mozambique benefited from considerable assistance from some western countries, notably the Scandinavians. Moscow and its allies, however, became Mozambique's primary economic, military, and political supporters and its foreign policy reflected this linkage. This began to change in 1983; in 1984 Mozambique joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Western aid quickly replaced Soviet support, with the Scandinavians, the United States, the Netherlands, and the European Union becoming increasingly important sources of development assistance. Italy also maintains a profile in Mozambique as a result of its key role during the peace process. Relations with Portugal, the former colonial power, are complex and of some importance as Portuguese investors play a visible role in Mozambique's economy. Mozambique is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the moderate members of the African Bloc in the United Nations and other international organizations. Mozambique also belongs to the Organization of African Unity/African Union and the Southern African Development Community. In 1994, the Government became a full member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, in part to broaden its base of international support but also to please the country's sizeable Muslim population. Similarly, in early 1996 Mozambique joined its Anglophone neighbors in the Commonwealth. In the same year, Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains close ties with other Lusophone states. U.S.-MOZAMBICAN RELATIONS Relations between the United States and Mozambique are good and steadily improving. This state of comity, spurred by the end of the superpower confrontation on the continent, South Africa's democratic transition, and Mozambique's own internal changes, bodes well for continued strong ties. By 1993, U.S. aid to Mozambique was prominent, due in part to significant emergency food assistance in the wake of the 1991-93 southern African drought, but more importantly in support of the peace and reconciliation process. During the process leading up to elections in October 1994, the United State s served as a significant financier and member of the most important commissions established to monitor implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords. The United States is one of the largest bilateral donors to the country and plays a leading role in donor efforts to assist Mozambique with its ongoing economic and political transitions. The U.S. Embassy opened in Maputo on November 8, 1975, and the first American ambassador arrived in March 1976. In that same year, the United States extended a $10 million grant to the Government of Mozambique to help compensate for the economic costs of enforcing sanctions against Rhodesia. In 1977, however, largely motivated by a concern with human rights violations, the U.S. Congress prohibited the provision of development aid to Mozambique without a presidential certification that such aid would be in the foreign policy interests of the United States. Relations hit a nadir in March 1981, when the Government of Mozambique expelled four members of the U.S. Embassy staff. In response, the United States suspended plans to provide development aid and to name a new ambassador to Mozambique. Relations between the two countries languished in a climate of stagnation and mutual suspicion. Contacts between the two countries continued in the early 1980s as part of the U.S. administration's conflict resolution efforts in the region. In late 1983, a new U.S. ambassador arrived in Maputo, and the first Mozambican envoy to the United States arrived in Washington, signaling a thaw in the bilateral relationship. The United States subsequently responded to Mozambique's economic reform and drift away from Moscow's embrace by initiating an aid program in 1984. President Samora Machel paid a symbolically important official working visit to the United States in 1985, where he met President Reagan. After that meeting, a full USAID mission was established, and significant assistance for economic reform efforts began. President Chissano met with President Bush in September 2003; previously, he had met with Presidents Reagan (October 1987), Bush (March 1990), and Clinton (November 1998), and also with Secretaries of State Powell (February 2002) and Baker (July 1992). Principal U.S. Embassy Officials AmbassadorHelen La Lime Deputy Chief of Mission James Dudley USAID Mission DirectorJay Knott USAID Deputy Mission Director Donna Stauffer Public Affairs Officer Greg Garland Defense AttachéIvan Evancho Peace Corps DirectorJohn Grabowski Centers for Disease Control DirectorAlfredo Vergara Management Officer Pamela Mansfield Regional Security OfficerAnthony Hicks Economic/Political Section Chief John Wysham Consular Officer Leyla Ones The U.S. Embassy is located at 193 Avenida Kenneth Kaunda; P.O. Box 783; tel: (258-1) 49-27-97, after hours (258-1) 49-07-23; fax: (258-1) 49-01-14. USAID Mission: Av. 25 de Setembro (Predio JAT); tel: (258-1) 352-000, after hours (258-1) 49-16-77; fax: (258-1) 352-100. The Public Affairs Office/Martin Luther King Library: 542 Avenida Mao Tse Tung; tel: (258-1) 49-19-16; fax: (258-1) 49-19-18. Security Information The security situation in Mozambique requires caution. Street crime and carjackings in urban areas occur frequently. Road travel can be hazardous and should not be undertaken after daylight hours. The abundance of weapons remaining from the country's civil war and police who are poorly trained, equipped, and motivated contribute to a serious crime situation. Additionally, up to 1 million land mines were planted throughout Mozambique during the last three decades of conflict, and while mine clearing operations are currently underway, surface travel off main highways should be approached with caution. Before visiting Mozambique, consult the Consular Information Sheet. Visit the Consular Section of the embassy after arrival for security updates and to register. TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program provides Consular Information Sheets, Travel Warnings, and Public Announcements. Consular Information Sheets exist for all countries and include information on entry requirements, currency regulations, health conditions, areas of instability, crime and security, political disturbances, and the addresses of the U.S. posts in the country. Travel Warnings are issued when the State Department recommends that Americans avoid travel to a certain country. Public Announcements are issued as a means to disseminate information quickly about terrorist threats and other relatively short-term conditions overseas which pose significant risks to the security of American travelers. Free copies of this information are available by calling the Bureau of Consular Affairs at 202-647-5225 or via the fax-on-demand system: 202-647-3000. Consular Information Sheets and Travel Warnings also are available on the Consular Affairs Internet home page: http://travel.state.gov. Consular Affairs Tips for Travelers publication series, which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a safe trip abroad are on the internet and hard copies can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, telephone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250. Emergency information concerning Americans traveling abroad may be obtained from the Office of Overseas Citizens Services at (202) 647-5225. For after-hours emergencies, Sundays and holidays, call 202-647-4000. The National Passport Information Center (NPIC) is the U.S. Department of State's single, centralized public contact center for U.S. passport information. Telephone: 1-877-4USA-PPT (1-877-487-2778). Customer service representatives and operators for TDD/TTY are available Monday-Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time, excluding federal holidays. Travelers can check the latest health information with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at 877-FYI-TRIP (877-394-8747) and a web site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel/index.htm give the most recent health advisories, immunization recommendations or requirements, and advice on food and drinking water safety for regions and countries. A booklet entitled Health Information for International Travel (HHS publication number CDC-95-8280) is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800. Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal Government Officials" listing in this publication). U.S. citizens who are long-term visitors or traveling in dangerous areas are encouraged to register at the Consular section of the U.S. embassy upon arrival in a country by filling out a short form and sending in a copy of their passports. This may help family members contact you in case of an emergency. Further Electronic Information Department of State Web Site. Available on the Internet at http:// www.state.gov, the Department of State web site provides timely, global access to official U.S. foreign policy information, including Background Notes and daily press briefings along with the directory of key officers of Foreign Service posts and more. Export.gov provides a portal to all export-related assistance and market information offered by the federal government and provides trade leads, free export counseling, help with the export process, and more. STAT-USA/Internet, a service of the U.S. Department of Commerce, provides authoritative economic, business, and international trade information from the Federal government. The site includes current and historical trade-related releases, international market research, trade opportunities, and country analysis and provides access to the National Trade Data Bank.
Extractions: ROUTE: THE SOUTPANSBERG CULTURAL ROUTE Stretching from the Tropic of Capricorn up to the Beit Bridge border post, touching the majestic Blouberg to the west, and flanking the Kruger national Park to the east, is the Soutpansberg. A region with amazingly diverse fauna and flora, from mountain fynbos to centuries-old Baobabs, sacred forests to genuine "Hardekool Bosveld" it is all here. Step into the domain of the elusive Loerie, or watch majestic vultures circling the sides of the Blouberg. Go tiger fishing; take a cultural drive through the old Venda or take the scenic mountain route on horseback. Visit one of our many rock-painting sites or go mountain biking in a nature reserve. Sleep in cabins to the sound of the mountain leopard roaring or in a hotel in town. For the nature lover, the area abounds with game farms, nature reserves and mountain reserves. The salt pans (still mined today) give the mountain range its name (Soutpansberg = salt pans mountain) are open to the public and well worth a visit. Louis Trichardt, lying next to the Great North Road (N1), is the ideal stopover on the way to the border. In fact if you stay over here, you may not want to leave. It is also the ideal base for exploring the Soutpansberg region. Another large town is Thohoyandou (meaning "head of the elephant"), the former capital of the Republic of Venda.
Refugees International: Countries: Zimbabwe A team from Refugees International visited Zimbabwe and South africa in June 2004 An estimated 300000 people either lost their jobs or were harassed by http://www.refugeesinternational.org/content/country/detail/2925
Extractions: Search: Home About Us Donate Where We Work ... Where we work The land reform program has not succeeded; agricultural productivity has fallen sharply due to lack of inputs, inefficient distribution, and lack of training for procedures amid insufficient rainfalls; and Zimbabwe also has one of the largest populations affected by HIV/AIDS in Africa. No community has been left unaffected. A team from Refugees International On Eve of Election, RI Warns of Discrimination Against Former Farm Workers in Zimbabwe Analysis of the Situation of Displaced Farm Workers in Zimbabwe South Africa: UNHCR inattention places Zimbabweans in jeopardy Zimbabwe: Humanitarian access denied to increasingly vulnerable former farm workers ... More Policy Recommendations The population of Zimbabwe is approximately 11 million. Zimbabwe is 98% African with two major ethnic groups, Shona 70% and Ndebele 16%, and others Batonka 2%, Shangaan 1%, Venda 1%, European, and Asian. Fifty percent of Zimbabweans are syncretic, part Christian and part indigenous beliefs, with another 25% Christian, 24% indigenous beliefs and Muslim. The government is a republic based on a unicameral legislature. Zimbabwe, once Rhodesia, a British colony since 1926, became independent in 1980. President Robert Mugabe from the ZANU-PF (Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front) has been the sole leader of the country since 1987. The main political opposition, the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) party led by Morgan Tsvangirai challenged Mugabe's leadership in the 2002 Presidential Elections. Mugabe's ZANU-PF party won the elections with serious irregularities and voter intimidation, according to international observers. The opposition party, however, prevented a constitutional change which would have given an unlimited office term to the incumbent president.
Share The Worlds Resources - Content The AIDS prevention people in PNG give me the impression of being totally Green, EC, B. Zokwe and JD Dupree, indigenous African Healers Promote Male http://www.stwr.net/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=166
Untitled Document It therefore denies South africa and apartheid any exceptionalism , embracingthe implausible argument The people had never heard of their arrival. http://web.africa.ufl.edu/asq/v1/1/4.htm
RAMATLHODI: SPEECH OPENING SHANGANA VILLAGE of the desire of the African people to reassert themselves after centuries of I want to congratulate those who made the shangaan Village a reality. http://www.info.gov.za/speeches/1999/9906241119a1001.htm
Extractions: Home PREMIER RAMATLHODI'S SPEECH OPENING SHANGANA VILLAGE, 24 February 1999 Programme Director, Hosi Mnisi, Hosi Jongilanga, Hosi Amashangana, Hosi Hoxane, Ladies and gentlemen. South Africa boasts of many places of interest and tourism attraction. The Northern Province being the gateway into the continent boasts of some of the best places in the world. The recent declaration of Heritage sites like Mapungubwe, Thulamela and other areas narrates the ancient history and civilisation of our people. This rich heritage, also tells about the origins of our people in their different tribes and ethnics groupings. Programme Director, the building of Shangana village should be viewed as part of the desire of the African people to reassert themselves after centuries of colonial domination and deprivation. It is an indication of the affirmation of our own history and in particular, that of the Shangaan people. As we celebrate this village, we want to reiterate our commitment as government towards the development of indigenous languages and their cultures. Our young people should be made to be proud of that history through its inclusion in our curricula and other informal learning centres. Our historians and academics should visit centres like this one, for reference as they labour to rewrite and correct our history books. Programme Director, the description of what the different huts represents have already been given. I am not going to repeat what has been said.
Extractions: ITINERARY SPECIALLY PREPARED FOR 2 27 Jan On arrival in Johannesburg, you check into the Holiday Inn Johannesburg International for (4) nights on a bed and breakfast basis. On arrival in Johannesburg, you collect your rented group B car and make your way to the Mpumalanga Escarpment area. Here you check into the Mount Sheba Country Hotel for (2) nights on a dinner, bed and breakfast basis. Sleepily tucked away amongst the mountains above the historic mining town of Pilgrims Rest lies Mount Sheba Country Lodge. Surrounded by indigenous forests this up-market lodge resort is an ideal retreat yet lies in easy distance to some on Mpumalanga's superb tourist attractions including 'God's Window', the Blyde River Canyon, Bourke's Potholes, Sudwala Caves and of course, Kruger National Park. The beautifully decorated en-suite bedrooms with private patios offer panoramic views allowing the beauty of the surroundings to be enjoyed from the comfort of your room. The cosy bedroom fireplaces are a perfect place to snuggle up with a book on chilly winter nights and your every comfort is catered for. At the main lodge cocktail hour is an event in the 'Potted Owl' before dining in the Chandelier Restaurant where the world-class gourmet menus are complimented by exceptional service that the Three Cities Group has become renowned for. For the leisure guest there is plenty to keep you occupied. Apart from visiting
Mission History Of The Soutpansberg Not only were they the first people to write down detailed accounts of 24, Cape Town, The Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society, pp.211243. http://www.soutpansberg.com/workshop/synthesis/mission_history.htm
Extractions: ** University of Pretoria Kirchliches Archivzentrum (Mariannenplatz, Kreuzberg, Berlin); Berlin Mission Society Library, Berlin; Heese Collection, University of South Africa; Missions-Berichte (Africana Collection, University of Pretoria); Cory Library Manuscripts Collection; William Cullen Library Microfilm Collection (Wesleyan Sources); Dutch Reformed Church Archives and the archives of the Mission Suisse Romande (French speaking Swiss Mission) in Lausanne, Switzerland. The Kirchliches Archivzentrum has the station diaries of the mission stations in the area, letters from the missionaries to the Mission Society, the personnel files of the missionaries and so on. These are currently being microfilmed. The Berlin Mission Library has all published sources on the Society and its work. Especially important are the Missions-Berichte, the published version of mission reports. There are also a number of tractates which discuss mission journeys to the Limpopo River, various personalities from the area, and the history of its mission stations. All of these sources are in German. Translations will eventually be available to researchers in electronic format. The Berlin Mission Society Library also has an extensive collection of theses on the history of the mission and its work. These are in English, German and Afrikaans. The cultural region we are dealing with is much wider than the geographical area and stretches into Mozambique and Zimbabwe and down into Botswana. We must remember these areas and groups are constructions resulting from political processes and ideologies.
International Land Coalition (ILC) - ARnet Controversially, as earlier in Zimbabwe, the South African constitution The Makuleke people were forcibly removed from the northern areas of what is now http://www.landcoalition.org/program/arnetr98nlc.htm
Extractions: Throughout southern Africa, land is presently not only one of the most defining political and development issues, but also perhaps the most intractable. Contemporary land regimes in the region have been shaped by a long and often violent history of land dispossession that followed colonialism and large-scale immigration by European settlers into the region. Within this common past, the land patterns of old colonies were shaped by the particular exigencies of their colonial masters. In the case of South Africa and Zimbabwe, British imperialism left a dualistic structure that segregated the African majority into "native reserves" or communal areas, and kept the most productive land for European agrarian and industrial interests. But new governments also have to deal with growing urban unemployment and the demands of international donor agencies and finance institutions. Thus post-colonial states face pressure to reduce the role of government in the economic life of each country, with an adverse effect on potentially radical agrarian reform programmes. Structural adjustment programmes have included strong pressures for land ownership patterns and tenure systems to be shaped by the market. This threat to communal tenure is further compounded by the liberalisation policies demanded by the push for foreign investment. The combined result has been to subject southern African countries to a new land grab by both foreigners and indigenous political elites, at the expense of the security of the rural poor.