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1. Finite Differences Tutorial
This is a brief and limited tutorial in the use of finite difference methods to solve problems in soil physics. It is meant for students at the graduate and
http://www.aquarien.com/findif/Findifa4.html

Extractions: A Limited Tutorial on Using home This and the soil physics tutorial section have been the most popular sections on this site. This is a brief and limited tutorial in the use of finite difference methods to solve problems in soil physics. It is meant for students at the graduate and undergraduate level who have at least some understanding of ordinary and partial differential equations. After an explanation of how to use finite differences in cook-book fashion, the equations, computer code and graphic results are given for three examples: heat flow, infiltration and redistribution, and contaminant transport in a steady-state flow field. Often, for problems of heat flow, or unsaturated water flow or contaminant transport in soil, there may be no analytic solutions or neat equations describing the result. In such cases, we use numerical methods on a computer. Perhaps the simplest of the numerical methods to understand and to program are finite differences, derived from Taylor series expansions (DuChateau and Zachmann, 1989). Some methods are so simple, they can even be done in a spreadsheet. But in the interests of accuracy, we will only discuss the methods that require some ability to program in a computer language such as C, BASIC or FORTRAN. The examples here given will be in FORTRAN, but can be converted to other languages. Because they are often confusing to the neophyte, we will not discuss Taylor series derivations. Finite differences can be explained and used in cook-book manner, if one is careful. If the reader has no other experience in these methods, he or she should keep in mind that this is a limited discussion. Such issues as stability, convergence, iteration methods, implicitness, discretization errors and non-Darcian flow will not be covered. So the reader should be careful to understand that a great deal more study is necessary to use these methods successfully in many cases. This is only a brief synopsis.

2. 2 FINITE DIFFERENCES
Interactive course showing how to use finite differences, finite elements, Fourier and Monte Carlo methods 2 finite differences.
http://www.lifelong-learners.com/pde/nu/SYL/sec2.php

Extractions: SYLLABUS Previous: Introduction Up: Contents Next: 2.1 Explicit 2 levels The finite difference (FD) method is often used when a function sampled on a homogeneous mesh satisfies a differential equation that can simply be approximated with finite difference quotients 1.4.2#eq.2 ). In explicit schemes , the solution is calculated directly in terms of known quantities: explicit schemes are usually easy to implement in a program, but more delicate to execute. Implicit schemes are more robust at execution, but result in more complicated codes solving a linear system: this can be slow in 2 or higher dimensions and is then often advantageous to reconsider a more general finite elements solution on an inhomogeneous mesh.

3. 1 Finite Differences
1 finite differences. 1 finite differences. The definition of derivative can be used to obtain a Then we can write the finite difference scheme as
http://info.sjc.ox.ac.uk/scr/sobey/iblt/chapter1/notes/node4.html

Extractions: This is a discrete version of the original differential equation ( It is possible to reduce the matrices to by eliminating the explicitly given values of . On the other hand, if one of the boundary conditions involved a derivative (corresponding to a physical situation where as an example, heat transfer rate is specified) then keeping these values as "unkowns" is needed; overall keeping them in the matrix is a very small overhead. If the boundary condition at is for instance we proceed by introducing a fictitious point , so that we have

4. Finite Difference Equations -- From Eric Weisstein's Encyclopedia Of Scientific
A Treatise on the Calculus of finite differences, 2nd rev. ed. New York Dover, 1960. FiniteDifference Methods for Partial Differential Equations.
http://www.ericweisstein.com/encyclopedias/books/FiniteDifferenceEquations.html

Extractions: see also Difference Equations Agarwal, Ravi P. Difference Equations and Inequality: Theory, Methods, and Applications, 2nd ed., rev. exp. New York: Dekker, 2000. 971 p. \$?. Batchelder, Paul M. An Introduction to Linear Difference Equations. New York: Dover, 1967. 209 p. \$?. Bellman, Richard Ernest and Cooke, Kenneth L. Differential-Difference Equations. New York: Academic Press, 1963. 462 p. \$?. Boole, George and Moulton, John Fletcher. A Treatise on the Calculus of Finite Differences, 2nd rev. ed. New York: Dover, 1960. Brand, Louis. Differential and Difference Equations. New York: Wiley, 1966. 698 p. Forsythe, George Elmer and Wasow, Wolfgang Richard. Finite-Difference Methods for Partial Differential Equations. New York: Wiley, 1960. 444 p. Fort, T. Finite Differences. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1948. Fulford, Glenn; Forrester, Peter; and Jones, Arthur. Modeling with Differential and Difference Equations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997. \$29.95. Goldberg, Samuel.

5. Interpolation By Finite Differences
When the interpolation points are equally spaces, the values of the interpolation polynomial can be expressed in terms of finite differences.
http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Vines/2977/gauss/formulae/interpolation.html

Extractions: When the interpolation points are equally spaces, the values of the interpolation polynomial can be expressed in terms of finite differences. Suppose that for , where h is the grid size, the values of the function f(x) are known. The difference are then called finite differences of first order. Furthermore, we define the differences of order k + 1 inductively by . If we use the shift operator E defined by , the difference operator is represented as . Sometimes the backwards difference is , the operator is called the forward difference. The central difference which is defined by is also used. Table 2, in which each entry after the second column is the or we can express each entry of table 2 in terms of or . For example, in the second column, is equal to and . If f(x) is a polynomial of degree k, then f(x) is a polynomial of degree is a constant, and is zero. Therefore, looking at the difference table, we can find the degree of an interpolation polynomial that can satisfactory approximate f(x) . It should also be noted that, if the computation of each entry of the table is carried out with a finite number of significant figures, the error in the values

6. Finite Differences In Heat Conduction - Fez
Abstract/Summary, Calculate computational work required to model heat conduction using finite differences with explicit timestepping. Date, 200201-07
http://www.matdl.org/repository/view.php?pid=matdl:351

7. Pythagoras Of Samos - Activity 4
Activity 4 finite differences and Inductive Proof There is a useful method called finite differences which we can use and I will try to explain how
http://www.mathgym.com.au/history/pythagoras/Activity4.htm

Extractions: Back This Activity and the related Essays on the History of Mathematics are on-line at MATHGYM (http://www.mathgym.com.au) [-Figurate Numbers-] [-Finding the formula - Finite Differences-] [-Mathematical Induction-] In this activity you will learn both a method for finding the equation given a table of related numbers, and for proving that the equation is correct using the technique of Mathematical Induction. To fully appreciate this Activity you need some understanding of elementary algebra. Figurate Numbers We believe that the Pythagoreans arranged pebbles in the shape of a regular polygons (e.g. equilateral triangle, square, pentagonal etc ). We call these numbers figurate numbers . For example: Figurate Number Geometric shape triangular numbers square numbers pentagonal numbers It is trivial to find the n th term of the square numbers (the 10 th term is 10 = 100 ) but it is not so clear how to get the formula for the n th term of the triangular numbers. There is a useful method called "finite differences" which we can use and I will try to explain how it works below for you. It is somewhat complex so bear with me as it is also pretty powerful (and nifty). Finding the formulas - Finite Differences We start by placing the data in a table. Let's use the data for the triangular numbers. Notice that the two columns contain the term number (n) and the corresponding value for the n

8. 3.1 Finite Difference Schemes
Any system of equations presented in the previous section can be solved numerically by replacing the partial derivatives by finite differences on a discrete
http://relativity.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrr-2003-4/node7.html

Extractions: Any system of equations presented in the previous section can be solved numerically by replacing the partial derivatives by finite differences on a discrete numerical grid, and then advancing the solution in time via some time-marching algorithm. Hence, specification of the state vector on an initial hypersurface, together with a suitable choice of EOS, followed by a recovery of the primitive variables, leads to the computation of the fluxes and source terms. Through this procedure the first time derivative of the data is obtained, which then leads to the formal propagation of the solution forward in time, with a time step constrained by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. The hydrodynamic equations (either in Newtonian physics or in general relativity) constitute a nonlinear hyperbolic system and, hence, smooth initial data can transform into discontinuous data (the crossing of characteristics in the case of shocks) in a finite time during the evolution. As a consequence, classical finite difference schemes (see, e.g., [ ]) present important deficiencies when dealing with such systems. Typically, first-order accurate schemes are much too dissipative across discontinuities (excessive smearing) and second order (or higher) schemes produce spurious oscillations near discontinuities, which do not disappear as the grid is refined. To avoid these effects, standard finite difference schemes have been conveniently modified in various ways to ensure high-order, oscillation-free accurate representations of discontinuous solutions, as we discuss next.

9. Halfbakery: Finite Differences
So word is sponsored by the numbers 4 (its length) and 28 (its 4th finite difference). Now set up a search engine that seeks out and collects 4 letter
http://www.halfbakery.com/idea/finite_20differences

Extractions: I don't think so. The number of possible final differences is very low and there are a lot of four letter words. That technique seems anyway about the same as assigning codes to a limited number of dictionary entries and just using those. If you wanted to avoid losing information, you'd have to represent all the differences as well as the initial value which would, I think, actually take an extra bit per character for any range of codes. You might be able to identify fancy patterns using differences and represent those but then you'll be trying to do something that any ordinary archiving utility already does pretty well.

10. SSRN-Pricing Exotic Barrier Options With Finite Differences By Guanghua Cao, Rod
SSRNPricing Exotic Barrier Options with finite differences by Guanghua Cao, Roderick MacLeod.
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=989641

11. Finite Differences And Functional Equations - Elsevier
All products within finite differences and Functional Equations finite differences and Functional Equations is part of Engineering and Technology
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/subject_all_products_browse.cws_home/08339?SH1C

12. Wiley InterScience :: Session Cookies
Your browser may not have a PDF reader available. Google recommends visiting our text version of this document.
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2426(199809)14:5<567::AID-NUM2>3.0.CO;2-

13. Matlab M-Files Database - Files
Transport Equation with finite differences, This program solves the transport equation with different Finite difference schemes and computes the convergence
http://matlabdb.mathematik.uni-stuttgart.de/files.jsp?MC_ID=1&SC_ID=2

14. A Finite Difference Poisson Solver For Irregular Geometries
The approach uses finite differences with the domain embedded in a rectangular Cartesian grid. We show that the algorithm is secondorder accurate and
http://anziamj.austms.org.au/V45/CTAC2003/Joma/home.html

15. FINITE DIFFERENCES METHOD APPLIED TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE DETECTION AND LOCALISAT
This approach is based on control volumes and the finite differences method . We have been interested particulary in unidirectional transfers l.
http://www.ndt.net/article/ecndt02/52/52.htm

Extractions: e-mail:ssahnoun@hotmail.com Paper presented at the 8th ECNDT , Barcelona, June 2002 The main concern of manufacturers of materials, is to know if these materials that contain defects which can deteriorate their rigidity. It is so, the recourse to the non destructive thermal control methods be essential. Indeed non destructive thermal control is a technique which allows the analysis of various structures by the study of their responses to thermal excitations, and the establishment of a relation between this response and the imperfections which they contain . The defects and the structure have different thermophysical properties; the presence of a defect changes the thermal flow which crosses the same homogeneous structure. If this changing is large, the defect would be easily detectable.

16. MATLAB Central File Exchange - Finite Differences Beam Propagation Method In 3-D
It has a very nice chapter on finite differences, they solve a heat transfer problem, but it s the same kind that of the wave equation I solve in this

17. Sparse Grids For Time Dependent Problems
The discretiztion is first order, implict in time (backward Euler = upwind) and second order in space. The corresponding sparse grid finite differences
http://wissrech.ins.uni-bonn.de/research/projects/zumbusch/fd.html

Extractions: M. Griebel Title Finite Difference Schemes on Sparse Grids for Time Dependent Problems Participant Gerhard Zumbusch Key words Sparse Grids, Hyperbolic Crosspoints, Tensor Product Approximation, Finite Differences, Parabolic Problems, Hyperbolic Conservation Laws, Central Difference Schemes, Space-Time Discretization, Waveform Relaxation Description We consider the solution of initial-boundary value problems of partial differential equations on sparse grid discretizations, both parabolic and hyperbolic problems. Sparse grids can be constructed from tensor products of one dimensional spaces, where specific parts of the space are cut off. Based on the hierarchic basis functions (or other pre-wavelet bases), products of functions with a support less than tol are cut off. This is depicted on the right hand side. The sparse grid construction is related to `hyperbolic crosspoints' and other approximation schemes. We are now interested in the discretization of PDEs. Besides the Galerkin approach (FEM) and the `combination technique' based on multivariate extrapolation, we propose a finite differcence type of discretization. It is based on dimensional splitting and the (nodal to) hierarchical basis transform H . Each differential operator D j along a direction j is discretized with finite differences . It is combined with a hierarchical basis transform and back-transform along all directions but the direction of interest

18. [math/0001079] Holistic Finite Differences Accurately Model The Dynamics Of The
We analyse the nonlinear KuramotoSivashinsky equation to develop an accurate finite difference approximation to its dynamics. The analysis is based upon
http://arxiv.org/abs/math.NA/0001079

Extractions: new recent Authors: T. MacKenzie A.J. Roberts (Submitted on 14 Jan 2000 ( ), last revised 13 Mar 2000 (this version, v2)) Abstract: We analyse the nonlinear Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation to develop an accurate finite difference approximation to its dynamics. The analysis is based upon centre manifold theory so we are assured that the finite difference model accurately models the dynamics and may be constructed systematically. The theory is applied after dividing the physical domain into small elements by introducing insulating internal boundaries which are later removed. The Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation is used as an example to show how holistic finite differences may be applied to fourth order, nonlinear, spatio-temporal dynamical systems. This novel centre manifold approach is holistic in the sense that it treats the dynamical equations as a whole, not just as the sum of separate terms. Subjects: Numerical Analysis (math.NA)

19. Finite Differences
The method of choice for any engineer given a differential equation to solve is to numerically approximate it using a finite difference scheme,
http://finance.bi.no/~bernt/gcc_prog/recipes/recipes/node11.html

Extractions: Finite Differences The method of choice for any engineer given a differential equation to solve is to numerically approximate it using a finite difference scheme, which is to approximate the continous differential equation with a discrete difference equation, and solve this difference equation. In the following we implement the two schemes described in chapter 14.7 of Hull (1993) , the implicit finite differences and the the explicit finite differences Brennan and Schwartz (1978) is one of the first finance applications of finite differences. Section 14.7 of Hull (1993) has a short introduction to finite differences. Wilmott et al. (1994) is an exhaustive source on option pricing from the perspective of solving partial differential equations. For European options we do not need to use the finite difference scheme, but we show how one would find the european price for comparison purposes. We show the case of an explitit finite difference scheme. This is an alternative to the implicit finite difference scheme The explicit version is faster, but a problem with the explicit version is that it may not converge. The following follows the discussion of finite differences starting on page 356 of Hull (1993) American Options.

20. Convergence Of A Mimetic Finite Difference Method For Static Diffusion Equation
The numerical solution of partial differential equations with finite differences mimetic methods that satisfy properties of the continuum differential
http://www.hindawi.com/GetArticle.aspx?doi=10.1155/2007/12303

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