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         Ozone Layer:     more books (100)
  1. Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy (Environmental Science) by Edward A. Parson, 2003-03-06
  2. The Montreal Protocol: Celebrating 20 Years of Environmental Progress - Ozone Layer and Climate Protection by Donald Kaniaru, 2007-10-20
  3. The Hole In The Sky; Man's Threat to the Ozone Layer (New Sciences) by John Gribbin, 1988-04-01
  4. Protecting the Ozone Layer: The United Nations History by Stephen O. Andersen, K. Madhava Sarma, 2005-02
  5. Burning Up: Losing Our Ozone Layer: Leveled Reader (On Deck Reading Libraries) by Rigby, 2002-11
  6. Global Warming: Greenhouse Gases and the Ozone Layer (Jr. Graphic Environmental Dangers) by Daniel R. Faust, 2008-09-25
  7. BETWEEN EARTH AND SKY: How CFCs Changed Our World and Endangered the Ozone Layer by Seth Cagin, 1993-05-11
  8. What If the Hole in the Ozone Layer Grows Larger? by Holly Cefrey, 2002-03
  9. Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet, Enlarged Edition by Richard Elliot Benedick, 1998-03-15
  10. Our Endangered Atmosphere: Global Warming & the Ozone Layer (Ideas in Conflict Series) by Gary E. McCuen, 1987-01
  11. Ultraviolet Danger: Holes in the Ozone Layer by John Martins, 2006-07-01
  12. Protecting the Ozone Layer: Lessons, Models, and Prospects
  13. Ozone Layer (Earth at Risk) by Marshall Fisher, 1992-02
  14. Ultraviolet Reflections: Life Under a Thinning Ozone Layer by Annika Nilsson, 1996-07-17

1. Ozone Layer - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia article that explains what the ozone layer is, and why we need it.
Ozone layer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation search The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O ). This layer absorbs 97-99% of the sun 's high frequency ultraviolet light , which is potentially damaging to life on Earth. Over 90% of ozone in earth's atmosphere is present here. "Relatively high" means a few parts per million—much higher than the concentrations in the lower atmosphere but still small compared to the main components of the atmosphere. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 15 km to 35 km above Earth's surface, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. The ozone layer was discovered in by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson . Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson , who developed a simple spectrophotometer that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground. Between and Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations which continues to operate today. The " Dobson unit ", a convenient measure of the total amount of ozone in a column overhead, is named in his honor.

2. Ozone Layer
The ozone layer refers to the ozone within stratosphere, where over 90% of the earth s ozone resides. Ozone is an irritating, corrosive, colorless gas
The Ozone Layer "The ozone layer" refers to the ozone within stratosphere, where over 90% of the earth's ozone resides. Ozone is an irritating, corrosive, colorless gas with a smell something like burning electrical wiring. In fact, ozone is easily produced by any high-voltage electrical arc (spark plugs, Van de Graaff generators, Tesla coils, arc welders). Each molecule of ozone has three oxygen atoms and is produced when oxygen molecules (O2) are broken up by energetic electrons or high energy radiation. For information on the history of the ozone layer for the layman, see the Short history of ozone depletion , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's NOAA Ozone overview or NOAA on stratospheric ozone . For short and to-the-point answers, check out Robert Parson's Ozone overview, FAQ1
The Stratosphere
Variations in temperature and pressure divide the earths atmosphere into layers, shown below, and

3. Ozone Science: The Facts Behind The Phaseout | Ozone Layer Depletion | US EPA
The Earth s ozone layer protects all life from the sun s harmful radiation, but human activities have damaged this shield. Less protection from ultraviolet
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Ozone Science: The Facts Behind the Phaseout
The Ozone Layer Ozone Depletion The World's Reaction Stratospheric Protection Division The Earth's ozone layer protects all life from the sun's harmful radiation, but human activities have damaged this shield. Less protection from ultraviolet light will, over time, lead to higher skin cancer and cataract rates and crop damage. The U.S., in cooperation with over 160 other countries, is phasing out the production of ozone-depleting substances in an effort to safeguard the ozone layer.
I. The Ozone Layer
The Earth's atmosphere is divided into several layers. The lowest region, the troposphere, extends from the Earth's surface up to about 10 kilometers (km) in altitude. Virtually all human activities occur in the troposphere. Mt. Everest, the tallest mountain on the planet, is only about 9 km high. The next layer, the stratosphere , continues from 10 km to about 50 km. Most commercial airline traffic occurs in the lower part of the stratosphere.

4. Science - Ozone Basics
Most ozone (about 90%) resides in a layer that begins between 6 and 10 miles (10 and 17 The ozone in this region is commonly known as the ozone layer.
Science: Ozone Basics Ozone is very rare in our atmosphere, averaging about three molecules of ozone for every 10 million air molecules. In spite of this small amount, ozone plays a vital role in the atmosphere. In the information below, we present "the basics" about this important component of the Earth's atmosphere.
Click here for larger image
Where is ozone found in the atmosphere?
Ozone is mainly found in two regions of the Earth's atmosphere. Most ozone (about 90%) resides in a layer that begins between 6 and 10 miles (10 and 17 kilometers) above the Earth's surface and extends up to about 30 miles (50 kilometers). This region of the atmosphere is called the stratosphere. The ozone in this region is commonly known as the ozone layer. The remaining ozone is in the lower region of the atmosphere, which is commonly called the troposphere. The figure (above) shows an example of how ozone is distributed in the atmosphere. What roles does ozone play in the atmosphere and how are humans affected?

5. The Ozone Hole Tour : Home Page
An overview of the ozone layer and the development of the ozone hole over the Antarctic hosted by the Centre of Atmospheric Science, University of Cambridge
Centre for
Atmospheric Science

Notes for teachers
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Awards and citations
for the Ozone Hole Tour

Before You Start!
The Discovery of the Ozone Hole
Recent Ozone Loss over Antarctica
The Science of the Ozone Hole
Latest Ozone Hole Research at Cambridge
Glossary Credits More Info ...
Centre for Atmospheric Science
, Cambridge University, UK. No text or graphics can be used or reproduced without explicit written permission. This version designed and maintained by Dr. Glenn Carver . Original concept and design Owen Garrett. French translation by , German translation by Dr. Olaf Morgenstern

6. NASA - Ozone Resource Page
Each year, the depleted region in Earth s protective ozone layer over the Antarctic, or ozone hole, reaches its largest size during a period in September.
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Life on Earth ... The Environment
NASA Data Reveals 'Average' Ozone Hole in 2007
Each year, the depleted region in Earth's protective ozone layer over the Antarctic, or "ozone hole," reaches its largest size during a period in September. Data from a NASA satellite are now in, and images created from the data reveal the extent of the hole in 2007 was about average when compared to measurements from the last few decades.
Data from NASA's Earth-observing Aura satellite show that the ozone hole peaked in size on Sept. 13, reaching a maximum area extent of 9.7 million square miles – just larger than the size of North America. That's "pretty average," says Paul Newman, an atmospheric scientist at NASA Goddard Space Fight Center, when compared to the area of ozone holes measured over the last 15 years. Still, the extent this year was "very big," he says, compared to 1970s when the hole did not yet exist.

7. Environment - Climate Change - Ozone Layer Protection
The ozone layer, a layer of gas in the upper atmosphere, performs the vital role of protecting humans and other living things from the harmful ultraviolet
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Repairing our ozone layer
Protection of the ozone layer
The ozone layer, a layer of gas in the upper atmosphere, performs the vital role of protecting humans and other living things from the harmful ultraviolet (UV-B) rays of the sun. In the 1970s scientists discovered that certain man-made chemicals could destroy ozone and deplete the ozone layer. Further research found that the growing production and use of chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in aerosol sprays, refrigeration, insulation and air conditioning was contributing to the accumulation of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in the atmosphere. They also observed that an ‘ozone hole’ was developing above the Antarctic. Find here more information about the ozone hole.

8. EEK! - Hole In The Ozone Layer?
Learn how it all started, how to fix the problem and what the future outlook iscancer.
What is Ozone?
Read all about good ozone, bad ozone here.
How it all started
In the late 1920s, chemicals called chloroflourocarbons (cloro-floro-carbons) or CFCs, were invented. These chemicals were not poisonous and didn’t harm fabrics, plants or people. Companies thought they were great and used them in refrigerators, air conditioners, styrofoam packaging, and spray cans. From the 1920s to the 1970s, billions of CFC molecules were released into the air. In the 1970s, scientists began to wonder what might happen to all those CFCs after they had been in the air for a while. They eventually learned that CFCs could float past the troposphere up into the stratosphere where UV rays would break them down. The chemicals that make up CFCs, mainly chlorine and fluorine, would float around the stratosphere, breaking up ozone molecules This was bad, because scientists knew that ozone in the stratosphere protects the Earth from too many UV rays.
Fixing the problem
In 1979, many countries, including the U.S., banned CFCs from being made or used. This was a big step toward fixing the problem. Today, no spray cans contain CFCs. Other chemicals are gradually replacing the CFCs in air conditioners. But the CFCs already in the atmosphere can take up to 50 years to reach the stratosphere. Once there, they hang around in the stratosphere for many years, doing damage.

9. The Ozone Layer Fact Sheet, Page 1 - Fact Sheets - [Meteorological Service Of Ca - Similar pages Ozone depletion-Key textIn much the same way that a cloud blocks the heat on a hot day, the ozone layer in the stratosphere blocks out the sun’s deadly ultraviolet rays.
Fact sheets
Fact sheet page: 1 Quiz 1999 Quiz 2000
The Ozone layer
A concerted global effort has been made to protect the earth's ozone layer: our planet's fragile sunscreen.
Production of the industrial chemicals which once posed a major threat to the ozone layer has been greatly reduced, and levels of some of these chemicals are now beginning to decline in the lower atmosphere. The ozone layer is expected to eventually recover, if all nations maintain their efforts to reduce ozone-destroying chemicals. However, it will probably be more than a decade before we begin to see definite signs of a recovery, and at least the year 2050 before any substantial recovery occurs. At present, the layer is still thinning, especially at the earth's poles. The "hole" over the Antarctic continues to remain large and considerable depletions are occurring in the Arctic. Mid-latitude areas, such as southern Canada and the U.S., are also still experiencing ozone thinning. Canada has played a key role in protecting the ozone layer. Our nation was instrumental in the development of the Montreal Protocol, the international agreement to reduce ozone-destroying chemicals. Canada is also a leader in the scientific research which guides international action to protect our fragile skies. Canada's Meteorological Service provides the most accurate ground-based ozone measurement instrument in the world, the Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer and uses the WMO Global Ozone Observing System and World Ozone and Ultraviolet radiation Data Centre.

10. Stratospheric Ozone - The Ozone Layer - What's Going On Up There?
Explains how the ozone layer is being depleted, and what you can do about it.

Understanding Stratospheric Ozone
Regulations Substances and Sectors National Initiatives ... Glossary
The Ozone Layer - What's going on up there?
Going On
Up There?
You have probably heard people talk about a "hole" in our ozone layer. Damage to our Earth's giant protective umbrella is more severe in the South Pole, but, even there, no actual "hole" exists. And only a slight thinning occurs over the rest of the world. So no matter where you stand, you won't find a true "hole". About 20 kilometres thick, this giant umbrella is made up of a layer of ozone gas. This gas is found some 15 to 35 kilometres above the Earth's surface in the upper atmosphere or "stratosphere". Like a good pair of sunglasses, the ozone layer acts like a natural filter, blocking out most of the sun's harmful UV (ultraviolet) rays. Without the ozone layer, more people would get sunburns, skin cancer and cataracts. Plants and animals would also be affected. So we can think of the ozone layer as our planet's own protective sunscreen. Did You Know?

11. The Ozone Layer
Ozone is a gas that occurs naturally in our atmosphere. Most of it is concentrated in the ozone layer, a region located in the stratosphere several miles
The Ozone Layer
Ozone is a gas that occurs naturally in our atmosphere. Most of it is concentrated in the ozone layer , a region located in the stratosphere several miles above the surface of the Earth. Although ozone represents only a small fraction of the gas present in the atmosphere, it plays a vital role by shielding humans and other life from harmful ultraviolet light from the Sun. Human activities in the last several decades have produced chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which have been released into the atmosphere and have contributed to the depletion of this important protective layer. When scientists realized the destructive effect these chemicals could have on the ozone layer, international agreements were put in place to limit such emissions. As a result, it is expected that the ozone layer will recover in the coming decades.

12. Ozone Layer
Martha (shrugs her shoulders in a gesture of uncertainty) I think the ozone layer’s like the top of the air where we are right now and then the rest is
Donna: What is the environment?
Martha: The environment is the earth, and you have to help the earth. Oh, and it’s the ozone layer.
Donna: And what is the ozone layer?
Martha: (shrugs her shoulders in a gesture of uncertainty) I think the ozone layer’s like the top of the air where we are right now and then the rest is empty of the ozone layer. I think it’s supposed to protect where we are right now from polluting and trash and stuff.
Donna: Where did you hear about the ozone layer?
Martha: Mostly on TV….The news channels mostly….Sometimes I want to see what there is, what I should wear, but they go into the ozone layer and stuff, and I watch that until they say what the weather’s going to be like. (King, 78) In the book, Doing their Share to Save the Planet There are many issues one must explore when educating himself/herself about the ozone layer. The goal of this paper is to provide the layman with a general knowledge of important components of ozone education. First, a general overview will be provided. Next, the reader will learn scientific aspects of the ozone layer such as factors responsible for ozone depletion, and then he/she will explore the ozone hole over Antarctica. To continue, societal aspects that will be addressed include health risks, crop/plant damage, and organism damage. Finally, actions that government has taken to attempt to solve the problem will be discussed. The paper will conclude with a discussion of the importance of ozone education.

13. What Is The Ozone Layer?
The ozone layer is a deep layer in the stratosphere, encircling the Earth, that has large amounts of ozone in it. The layer shields the entire Earth from
What is the ozone layer?
The ozone layer is a deep layer in the stratosphere , encircling the Earth, that has large amounts of ozone in it. The layer shields the entire Earth from much of the harmful ultraviolet radiation that comes from the sun. Interestingly, it is also this ultraviolet radiation that forms the ozone in the first place. Ozone is a special form of oxygen, made up of three oxygen atoms rather than the usual two oxygen atoms. It usually forms when some type of radiation or electrical discharge separates the two atoms in an oxygen molecule (O ), which can then individually recombine with other oxygen molecules to form ozone (O ). The ozone layer became more widely appreciated when it was realized that certain chemicals mankind manufactures, called chloroflurocarbons, find their way up into the stratosphere where, through a complex series of chemical reactions, they destroy some of the ozone. As a result of this discovery, an international treaty was signed, the the manufacture of these chemicals was stopped. The ozone layer has since begun to recover as a result of these efforts.
This stratospheric ozone, which protects us from the sun, is good. There is also ozone produced near the ground, from sunlight interacting with atmospheric pollution in cities, that is bad. It causes breathing problems for some people, and usually occurs in the summertime when the pollution over a city builds up during stagnant air conditions associated with high pressure areas.

14. Ozone Layer Most Fragile On Record | Science | The Guardian
Fears over increase in skin cancer as scientists report that climate change continues to destroy the earth s protection.
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Ozone layer most fragile on record
Fears over increase in skin cancer as scientists report that climate change continues to destroy the earth's protection
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    About this article
    Close This article appeared in the Guardian on Wednesday April 27 2005 . It was last updated at 02:33 on April 27 2005. The protective ozone layer over the Arctic has thinned this winter to the lowest levels since records began, alarming scientists who believed it had begun to heal. The increased loss of ozone allows more harmful ultraviolet light to reach the earth's surface, making children and outdoor enthusiasts such as skiers more vulnerable to skin cancer - a disease which is already dramatically increasing.

15. About The Ozone Layer - Public Information - The Ozone Secretariat
The ozone layer absorbs most of the harmful ultravioletB radiation from the sun. It also completely screens out lethal UV-C radiation. The ozone shield is
United Nations Environment Programme
Ozone Secretariat Search
About the Ozone Layer
Quick Links Frequently Asked Questions Facts on Ozone Chemicals phase Out Remaining Challenges Lessons Learnt Ozone molecules (O3) consist of three oxygen atoms. This poisonous gas is extremely rare in the atmosphere, representing just three out of every 10 million molecules. Ninety per cent of ozone exists in the upper atmosphere, or stratosphere, between 10 and 50 km (6-30 miles) above the earth. Ozone at ground-level, at the bottom of the troposphere, is a harmful pollutant resulting from automobile exhausts and other sources. The ozone layer absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet-B radiation from the sun. It also completely screens out lethal UV-C radiation. The ozone shield is thus essential to life as we know it. Depleting the ozone layer allows more UV-B to reach the earth. More UV-B means more melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers, more eye cataracts, weakened immune systems, reduced plant yields, damage to ocean eco-systems and reduced fishing yields, adverse effects on animals, and more damage to plastics. Scientific concern started in 1970 when Prof. Paul Crutzen pointed out the possibility that nitrogen oxides from fertilizers and supersonic aircraft might deplete the ozone layer. In 1974, Professors F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario J. Molina recognized that when CFCs finally break apart in the atmosphere and release chlorine atoms they cause ozone depletion. Bromine atoms released by halons have the same effect. The three scientists received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1995 for their pioneering work.

16. Untitled Document
As humans developed technology, the ozone layer will get broken down, by such chemicals as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). In1985, scientists discovered that a
GLOBAL WARMING CAUSES EFFECTS PREVENTIONS THEN AND NOW HOME PAGE ... SURVEY OZONE LAYER In September 1985 the hole in the ozone layer was 4.6 million square miles wide. In September 1998 it has increased to 10.5 million square miles, and it was 11 million square miles wide in September 2000. Source: Dolan, Edward J. Our Poisoned Sky . Dutton: Cobblehill Books, 1991. THE SHY BUNCH HOME PAGE ABOUT US REFERENCE ... SURVEY

17. Ozone And The Ozone Layer
What is Ozone? ozone layer deplection causes and effects.
Skip navigation links About us Contact us Publications ... What's new Ozone Protection You are here: Environment home Atmosphere Ozone protection
Ozone and the ozone layer
What is Ozone?
Ozone is a naturally occurring molecule containing three atoms of oxygen. Ozone molecules form a gaseous layer mostly in the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere) 15-30 km above the surface of the earth, and protects life on earth by absorbing ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun. Download Twenty Questions and Answers about the ozone layer - from the World Meteorological Organisation web site.
Ozone layer depletion - causes and effects
Concerns about the depletion of the ozone layer exist because the ozone layer reduces the amount of harmful ultraviolet radiation that reaches the earth's surface. The ozone layer is also an important part of the global atmosphere-climate system in which present day living organisms, including humans, have evolved. Any significant change to this layer can have far-reaching consequences for human health. CFCs, halons, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, HCFCs, hydrobromofluorocarbons and methyl bromide are directly implicated in the depletion of the ozone layer. These and other ozone depleting substances also contribute to varying extents to the

18. 7(e) The Ozone Layer
The ozone layer is a region of concentration of the ozone molecule (O3) in the Earth s atmosphere. The layer sits at an altitude of about 1050 kilometers,
GLOSSARY ... ABOUT CHAPTER 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere (e). The Ozone Layer The ozone layer is a region of concentration of the ozone molecule (O ) in the Earth's atmosphere. The layer sits at an altitude of about 10-50 kilometers, with a maximum concentration in the stratosphere at an altitude of approximately 25 kilometers. In recent years, scientists have measured a seasonal thinning of the ozone layer primarily at the South Pole. This phenomenon is being called the ozone hole
The ozone layer naturally shields Earth's life from the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation . A severe decrease in the concentration of ozone in the ozone layer could lead to the following harmful effects:
  • An increase in the incidence of skin cancer (ultraviolet radiation can destroy acids in DNA
  • A large increase in cataracts and Sun burning.

19. The Skeptics Vs. The Ozone Hole : Weather Underground
Humangenerated CFCs were indeed destroying Earth s protective ozone layer. In fact, the ozone depletion was far worse than Molina and Roland had predicted.
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    20. Ozone Layer
    The ozone layer is a layer of ozone particles scattered between 19 and 30 kilometres (12 to 30 miles) up in the Earth s atmosphere, in a region called the
    Ozone Layer The ozone layer is a layer of ozone particles scattered between 19 and 30 kilometres (12 to 30 miles) up in the Earth's atmosphere, in a region called the stratosphere . The concentration of ozone in the ozone layer is usually under 10 parts ozone per million. Without the ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun would not be stopped from entering the Earth's atmosphere and arriving at the surface, causing damage to most living species. Ozone is created in the stratosphere when highly energetic solar radiation strikes molecules of oxygen (O ) and causes the two oxygen atoms to split apart. If a freed atom bumps into another O , it joins up, forming ozone (O ). This process known as photolysis. Ozone is also naturally broken down in the stratosphere by sunlight and by a chemical reaction with various compounds containing nitrogen , hydrogen and chlorine. These chemicals all occur naturally in the atmosphere in very small amounts. In an unpolluted atmosphere there is a balance between the amount of ozone being produced and the amount of ozone being destroyed. As a result, the total amount of ozone in the stratosphere remains relatively constant. The amount of ozone within the stratosphere varies according to altitude. Ozone concentrations are highest between 19 and 23 km, but there are significant amounts up to 30 km. At these levels in the atmosphere however, the

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