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         Mycorrhizae:     more books (100)
  1. Mycorrhizae in Crop Production (Crop Science)
  2. Basic Research & Applications of Mycorrhizae (Microbiology Series) (Microbiology Series) (Microbiology Series) by Gopi K. Podila, Ajit Varma, 2006-04-01
  3. Mycorrhizae in Sustainable Agriculture (Asa Special Publication) by R. G. Linderman, 1992-10
  4. The Ecology of Mycorrhizae (Cambridge Studies in Ecology) by Allen Michael F., 1991-05-31
  5. Current Advances in Mycorrhizae Research (Symposium Series (American Phytopathological Society).) by Gopi K. Podila, 2000-02-15
  6. Organic Farming and Mycorrhizae in Agriculture by P C Trivedi, 2007-08-30
  7. Mycorrhizae and Plant Health (Aps Symposium Series) by Francis Louis Pfleger, 1994-01-15
  8. Mycorrhizae: Webster's Timeline History, 1930 - 2007 by Icon Group International, 2010-03-10
  9. Arbuscular Mycorrhizae: Interactions in Plants, Rhizospere, and Soils
  10. The Biological Component: Nursery Pests and Mycorrhizae by Thomas D., Et Al Landis, 1989-01-01
  11. Mycorrhizae: Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry
  12. The Container Tree Nursery Manual Volume Five - the Biological Component: Nursery Pests and Mycorrhizae by T.D.; Tinus, R.W.; McDonald, S.E.; & Barnett, J.P. Landis, 1990
  13. The Mycorrhizae: Diversity, Ecology and Application by Manoj Tiwari, S.C. Sati, 2008-03-10
  14. Micorrizas arbusculares en ecosistemas aridos y semiaridos/ Arbuscular mycorrhizae in arid and semiarid ecosystems (Spanish Edition) by Noe M. Montano, Sara L. Camardo, 2008-04

1. Mycorrhiza - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
A mycorrhiza (Greek for fungus roots; typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic (occasionally weakly pathogenic)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Please help improve this article by adding reliable references . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2007) A mycorrhiza (Greek for fungus roots ; typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas ) is a symbiotic (occasionally weakly pathogenic ) association between a fungus and the roots of a plant In a mycorrhizal association the fungus may colonize the roots of a host plant either intracellularly or extracellularly. This mutualistic association provides the fungus with relatively constant and direct access to mono- or dimeric carbohydrates , such as glucose and sucrose produced by the plant in photosynthesis The carbohydrates are translocated from their source location (usually leaves) to the root tissues and then to the fungal partners. In return, the plant gains the use of the mycelium 's very large surface area to absorb water and mineral nutrients from the soil, thus improving the mineral absorption capabilities of the plant roots. Plant roots alone may be incapable of taking up phosphate ions that are immobilized, for example, in soils with an

2. Tools, Articles And Resources To Help Answer Your Mycorrhizae Questions
Mycorrhizal inoculation can significantly improve plant performance. You ll find our inoculant is inexpensive and easy to use. Scientific tests demonstrate

Mycorrhizal Applications
Who We Are Do I Need Mycorrhizae? MycoApply® Product Information ... Contact Us
Science Helping Your Plants Grow Better Naturally

New MycoVideo Clip! See how mycorrhizae can help feed a hungry planet.
View our 3-5 minute segment that includes Mycorrhizal Applications' facility and features interviews with Dr Mike, video footage of the mycorrhizal growing process and interviews with mycorrhizal users from the History Channel's Modern Marvels special on the "Future of Fertilizer". The program subject was the History, Manufacture and Importance of Synthetic and Organic Fertilizers. Modern Marvels Clip
Get answers to your questions about mycorrhizae and their uses. Easy and helpful tools and articles are available to help you choose when, where, and how to use mycorrhizae!
What Are Mycorrhizae?
The word "mycorrhizae" literally means "fungus-roots" and defines the close mutually beneficial relationship between specialized soil fungi (mycorrhizal fungi) and plant roots.
About 95% of the world’s land plants form the mycorrhizal relationship in their native habitats. It is estimated that mycorrhizal fungal filaments explore hundreds to thousands more soil volume compared to roots alone.

3. Mycorrhizae Inoculants For Better Plant Roots And Healthier Plants.
BioOrganics Endo and Ectotypes of mycorrhizae inoculants are noted by the USDA to be especially beneficial for grapes, citrus, melons, oaks pines.
2153 Vista Del Mundo
Santa Maria, CA 93458
Email Link
As more and more is learned about how plants really work, it is becoming obvious that the conventional emphasis on soil chemistry and NPK fertilizers has problems - most notably in the areas of drinking water contamination, soil degradation, disease-prone plants, and input costs.
But after decades of focusing exclusively on chemically-oriented growing practices, soil scientists around the world are now looking to the biological sciences to find better, cleaner, and more sustainable methods of growing both crops and ornamentals. Mycorrhizal fungi inoculants are one of the first results of USDA and university research in this very promising area.
In natural soil situations, plants enjoy mutually-beneficial relationships with many other organisms, many of them microscopic, and all these biological elements - plant roots, fungi, bacteria, earthworms, and other life forms - play some role in the lives of the others.
Over millions of years, mycorrhizal fungi and plants have formed a mutual dependence. The fungi are nourished by root exudates and in return

4. The Fifth Kingdom - Pictorial Supplement To Chapter 17 - Mycorrhizas
mycorrhizae mutualistic plant-fungus symbioses (35 pictures) . Transverse section of arbutoid mycorrhiza of Arbutus menziesii with Lactarius deliciosus
Pictorial Supplement to The Fifth Kingdom - Chapter 17 Mycorrhizae - mutualistic plant-fungus symbioses
(the CD-ROM has full text and 46 pictures) [grateful acknowledgment to S. Berch, C. Godbout, M. Brundrett,
who generously made some of these
images available to me for teaching purposes] (1) Ectomycorrhizas dichotomously branched ectomycorrhizas of a basidiomycete with a conifer.
X 4 ectomycorrhizas of Suillus subluteus with Pinus resinosa (the branched ends of the short lateral roots)
X 2/3 dichotomous ectomycorrhizas (upper) and mycelial strands (lower) of Amanita muscaria on Pinus strobus. ectomycorrhizas of Laccaria bicolor with Populus tremuloides.
X 3 transverse section of an ectomycorrhiza of Pseudotsuga menziesii with Rhizopogon colossus showing the fungal mantle (brown in this example).
X 50 section of outer layers of an ectomycorrhizal root of Pinus strobus , showing some of the mantle and the Hartig net - the latter formed by hyphae of the mycobiont, Pisolithus tinctorius , penetrating between the cortical cells of the root.

5. Mycorrhizae
mycorrhizae are the prevalent condition in nature. The types of mycorrhizae are described in more detail on the next few pages.
Slide 20 of 66 Notes:
    Mycorrhizae are the prevalent condition in nature The types of mycorrhizae are described in more detail on the next few pages.

6. Symbiosis: Mycorrhizae And Lichens
The subject of symbiosis is usually more scholarly than applicable, but in the case of mycorrhizae, you will see that both scholarly as well as applied
Symbiosis: Mycorrhizae and Lichens Introduction In its most common usage, symbiosis is used to describe the intimate association between two distantly, related species that are mutually benefiting from this association. These associations are obligatory ones in which neither organisms can survive in nature if the two organisms are separated. However, in the strict sense of this term, as it was proposed by de Barry in 1879, symbiotic relationships include a wide range of associations:
  • Phoresy : A loose association where a usually, smaller organism is using a larger one as a transport host. Normally used in references to arthropods and fishes. An example of the latter is the remora, illustrated below, in Fig 1.
Fig. 1: The remora is a one of several species of marine fishes that have sucking disks with which they attach themselves to sharks, whales, sea turtles, or the hulls of ships.
  • Commensalism : An association in which one species, usually the smaller, benefits from the association while the other species seems to be unaffected. Such relationships are usually not obligate and neither species will die if the association does not form. A common example is the relationship between the clown fish and sea anemone . The clown fish can swim into the tentacles of the anemone but will not be paralyzed by its sting. By staying within the tentacles of the anemone, it is protected from fish that may prey on it. However, the anemone does not apparently benefit from this relationship. An example more common in Hawai‘i is the

7. Dr. Davies Research Page
The word Mycorrhiza is given to a mutualistic association between a fungus (Myco) and the roots (rhiza) of the plants. This ascociation is symbiotic
Home Nursery Crop Physiology Plant Stress Mycorrhizae ...
/ Biofertilizers

Mycorrhizae Links:
Mycorrhizal Effects on Host Plant Physiology
The word "Mycorrhiza" is given to a mutualistic association between a fungus (Myco) and the roots (rhiza) of the plants. This ascociation is symbiotic because the relationship is advantageous for both organisms. The macrosymbiont (the plant) gains increased exploration of the soil (rhizo sphere) with the intrincate net of hyphae that increases the uptake of water and nutrients from the soil interphase. The microsymbiont (the fungus) uses the carbon provided by the plant for its physiological functions, growth and development.
MYCORRHIZA at TAMU The Nursery Crop Physiology lab at the Department of Horticulture has been working over the past 25 years with ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under severe outplanting conditions (Texas lignite coal, strip mines, and highway revegetation sites). They have also characterized mycorrhizal associations in herbaceous and woody plant species and some of the mechanisms of enhanced drought, nutrient relations and temperature stress tolerance of mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal plants can also be used to phytoremediate soil contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals such as chromium (Cr).
Benefits of Mycorrhiza:
  • Enhanced plant efficiency in absorbing water and nutrients from the soil.
  • 8. Mycorrhiza
    mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations that form between the roots of most plant species and fungi. These symbioses are characterized by bidirectional

    9. Mycorrhizae: Benefits And Practical Application In Forest Tree Nurseries - Fores
    These fungi invade the feeder root tissues and form modified roots called mycorrhizae (fungusroots), which greatly increase efficiency of nutrient and
    Search: Advanced Search Forest Pests of North America
    Mycorrhizae: Benefits and Practical Application in Forest Tree Nurseries
    Donald H. Marx - Director, Institute of Mycorrhizal Research, USDA Forest Service, Athens GA,
    Charles E. Cordell - Plant Pathologist, USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC, and
    Paul Kormanik - Principal Silviculturist, USDA Forest Service, Athens GA. Cordell C.E., Anderson R.L., Hoffard W.H., Landis T.D., Smith R.S. Jr., Toko H.V., 1989. Forest Nursery Pests . USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 680, 184 pp. Specialized root-inhabiting fungi form beneficial associations with all forest tree species. These fungi invade the feeder root tissues and form modified roots called mycorrhizae (fungus-roots), which greatly increase efficiency of nutrient and water uptake. Most plants require mycorrhizae for normal growth and development in natural soils. Mycorrhizae can be classified into two primary types: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae. With ectomycorrhizae, which are normally found on pine, spruce, fir, beech, eucalyptus, alder, oak, and hickory, the fungi grow between rather than within root cells. They form a structure known as the Hartig net between the cells, as well as a fungus mantle or cover on the surface of feeder roots. The ectomycorrhizal feeder roots develop a swollen appearance, and in pines they normally have a forking habit (fig. 1-7).

    10. Mycorrhizae
    These are termed mycorrhizae (fungus roots, from the Greek mykes = mushroom or fungus and rhiza = root). Allen (1991) defined a mycorrhiza as a
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    Mycorrhizae Title: Mycorrhizae
    The roots of almost all higher plants are known to form mutualistic symbioses with fungi. These are termed mycorrhizae (fungus roots, from the Greek: mykes = mushroom or fungus and rhiza = root). Allen (1991) defined a mycorrhiza as " a mutualistic symbiosis between plant and fungus localised in a root or root-like structure in which energy moves primarily from plant to fungus and inorganic resources move from fungus to plant Fungi of very diverse kinds, belonging to all the major groups, take part in mycorrhizae. Based on morphology and the species involved, several different types are recognised. These are described below. The types can be distinguished by their positions along two gradients, from a lack of penetration of cortical cells (ectomycorrhizae) to penetration (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae) and from an enclosed (ectomycorrhizae) to open root (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae). Any natural ecosystem normally contains a mixture of types of mycorrhizal associations The main mycorrhizal response is one of increased efficiency of mineral uptake especially of poorly mobile ions and there is a voluminous literature dealing with the nutritional benefits that plants derive from mycorrhizal associations. Mycorrhizae are also involved in the transfer of nutrients from components of soil minerals and organic residues to solution, and in nutrient cycling in an ecosystem.

    11. DLC-ME | The Microbe Zoo | Dirtland | Root Cellar
    Rhizobia and the mycorrhizal fungi live with plants in symbiotic relationships. mycorrhizae live inside root cells and form structures that look like
    Mycorrhizal Fungi Rhizobium Rhizosphere
    The Root Cellar
    A favorite habitat of microbes is near and in the roots of plants. Many microbes live in soil, but even more (up to 100 times more) live close to the roots of plants. This area near the roots is called the " rhizosphere " which is the thin layer of soil that sticks to the roots. The rhizosphere is a huge habitat in the soil, because plants have so many root fibers. An individual wheat plant, for example, may have a root surface area of 6 square meters (yards)!
    Some microbes have very close relationships with plants. The plant and the microbes become so close that the microbe actually lives inside the plant! This association of microbes and roots often benefits both organisms. The plant gives the microbes food, such as sugars and amino acids , and the microbes give the plants minerals , some vitamins , nitrogen, and some amino acids One example of a microbe living inside plant roots is Rhizobium , which lives inside the roots of plants such as peas and clover. Another group of microbes living inside roots are mycorrhizal fungi Rhizobia and the mycorrhizal fungi live with plants in symbiotic relationships.

    12. GLOSSARY M
    mycorrhiza Occurs when a fungus (basidiomycete or zygomycete) weaves around or into a mycorrhizae). myelin sheath Layers of specialized glial cells,
    On-Line Biology Book: GLOSSARY
    macroevolution The combination of events associated with the origin, diversification, extinction , and interactions of organisms which produced the species that currently inhabit the Earth. Large scale evolutionary change such as the evolution of new species (or even higher taxa ) and extinction of species. macromolecules Large molecules made up of many small organic molecules that are often referred to as monomers; e.g., carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Macromolecules are polymers of monomers. macronucleus In ciliates, the large nucleus that carries up to several hundred copies of the genome and controls metabolism and asexual reproduction PICTURE macronutrients 1. Elements needed by plants in relatively large (primary) or smaller (secondary) quantities. 2. Foods needed by animals daily or on a fairly regular basis. macrophages A type of white blood cell derived from monocytes that engulf invading antigenic molecules, viruses , and microorganisms and then display fragments of the antigen to activate helper T cells ; ultimately stimulating the production of antibodies against the antigen.

    13. Database Of Chestnut Mycorrhizae - A Molecular Database Of Mycorrhizal Fungi Ass
    This is a molecular database of mycorrhizal fungi associated with the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) tree in Wisconsin. You can BLAST this database to

    News and Updates Research Site BLAST the Database ... Make a Donation W e l c o m e Thanks for visiting the Database of Chestnut Mycorrhizae! This is a database intended for the identification of ectomycorrhizal root tips. These data were generated for the fulfillment of a master's thesis here at the University of Wisconsin - La Crosse. If you need some background information on Mycorrhizae, you can go here to see a general overview that I wrote. W h a t t o D o Here you can do a BLAST search of our database to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi. The database contains partial ITS sequences generated with the primer pairs ITS1-F (Gardes and Bruns) and ITS4 (White, All sequences are orderd 5' to 3' starting with ITS1-F. You can also Search through the database for descriptions and pictures. Check back often because this site will be updated as soon as new sequences are generated. You are the 13 Unique Visitor to this site since 12/08/2005 Last Updated 01/23/08 var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://ssl." : "http://www."); document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E"));

    14. Connecticut Chapter, The American Chestnut Foundation (CT-TACF): Mycorrhizae And
    This article describes mycorrhizal associations, where the hyphae of a fungus wrap themselves around the roots of a host, in this case the American

    Directors Mission Join ... Links Viewing By Entry / Main March 1, 2007 Mycorrhizae and the American Chestnut: An Underground Tale of Mystery Jonathan Palmer
    Mycorrhizae: What are they and what do they do?
    The success of any plant species such as chestnut is dependent upon environmental conditions such as soil pH, soil porosity, water availability, light availability, and so on. Also important are the mycorrhizal fungi present in the soil. “Myco” means fungus and “rhiza” means root, so mycorrhiza literally means “fungus-root.” The mycorrhizal association was first recognized and described by Albert Bernhard Frank in 1885, although even Theophrastus of ancient Greece reported seeing this unique relationship. Mycorrhizal fungi form mutualistically beneficial relationships with the roots of 90% of all plants by providing increased uptake of nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. In return, the fungi receive sugars from photosynthesis of the plant host (symbiont). In most cases, plants are dependent on mycorrhizae for survival.
    Figure 1: Mycorrhizal fungi come in many shapes, colors, and sizes. Above (A) the chanterelle (

    15. Conference On Rhizobium And Mycorrhizae In Crops
    A conference to be held on positive plant microbial interactions in crop production and utilisation, at the University of Sunderland, UK.
    Conference on Rhizobium and
    Mycorrhizae in Crops
    Dr Andrews page Proceedings page Programme page Venue page ... Sponsors page The conference had sessions on the rhizosphere, microbial production of plant nutrients and growth regulators; N fixation in pasture, grain and woody legume crops; mycorrhizae; fungal endophytes of crop plants and micro-organisms in brewing, bread making and fermented food production. Plant microbial interactions: positive interactions in relation to crop production and utilisation A range of micro-organisms interact positively with crop plants and play a major role in crop production. For example, soil and rhizosphere micro-organisms can: mediate the generation of inorganic nutrient ions such as nitrate, ammonium and phosphate from organic and/or inorganic material. Also, some soil micro-organisms can fix significant amounts of atmospheric nitrogen which becomes available to plants while others produce plant growth substances which enhance crop growth. The population of micro-organisms in the rhizosphere can be manipulated by inoculation of seed with specific micro-organisms. This procedure can lead to increased production of cereals such as wheat and rice. Pasture, grain and tree legume crops have symbiotic nitrogen fixing

    16. Soil & Root Ecology, Jackson Lab UC Davis Mycorrhizae And Roots - Soil & Root Ec
    mycorrhizae are another avenue by which plants increase soil resource acquisition. For many plant species, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) association is
    UC Delivers ANR News Site Map
    Mycorrhizae and Roots
    Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal tomatos Root architecture and root growth are important for exploration of soil for water and nutrients, as the acquisition of these resources drives plant growth. Several important concepts, however, govern the development of roots and their direct and indirect effects on plant growth:
    • Roots are highly plastic, i.e., architecture and growth are highly responsive to environmental conditions, and therefore can optimize resource acquisition. Tradeoffs exist in root form and function. The costs of producing roots can yield benefits in terms of the acquisition of soil water and nutrients and ultimately, plant growth and fitness. Genetic analysis has revealed that root architectural traits are often multi-gene or quantitative traits. Roots affect attributes of plant communities and ecosystems, due to their effects on resource acquisition, growth, productivity, water budgets, and nutrient cycling.
    Mycorrhizae are another avenue by which plants increase soil resource acquisition. For many plant species, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) association is known to have the following effects:
    • Fungi extend the network of fine root hairs and increase the uptake of nutrients.

    17. Super-Grow Mycorrhizae Fungi
    mycorrhizae fungi play an important organic role in 85% of plants by bringing nutrients to plants. Mycorrizhae are essential soil organisms that are more

    18. Mycorrhizae Biological Root Stimulant And Inoculant
    mycorrhizae root growth stimulant for biological soil treatment of transplants.
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    19. Signaling And Nutrient Transfer Mechanisms In The Mycorrhizal Symbiosis
    AM Arbuscular mycorrhizae are the most common and widespread of all mycorrhizal associations. It is a hugely diverse group of autotrophs that engage in

    20. Mycorrhizae
    mycorrhizae result from the symbiosis (partnership) between a fungus hyphae and a living plant root. Symbiotic partnerships occur only between living
    Home Catalog Mushrooms
    Mycorrhizae: Plant-Fungus Partners
    Unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. They absorb their food from dead organic matter, or other living organisms. The source of their food is called a substrate if it is dead, and a host if it is living.
    The body (mycelium) of a fungus is made of threads called hyphae. Hyphae absorb nutrients from the substrate, spread, grow, and produce fruiting bodies. The fruiting body of the fungus is the part that we can see, and touch.
    Fruiting Bodies
    Black Truffle Cup Fungus Morel Giant Puffball Mushroom Earth Star
    Mycorrhizae result from the symbiosis (partnership) between a fungus' hyphae and a living plant root. Symbiotic partnerships occur only between living organisms. If a fungus obtains its carbohydrates from dead organic matter it is a "decomposer" and not symbiotic.
    Symbiotic partnerships are formed in three ways. A parasitic relationship benefits the fungus but harms the host. In mutual symbiosis, both fungus and host benefit from their partnership. A neutral symbiosis benefits the fungus with no harm or benefit to the host.
    Mycorrhizal symbioses are mutual and two types are recognized: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.

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