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         Magnetic Levitation:     more books (100)
  1. Magnetic Levitation for Rail Transport (Monographs on cryogenics) by B. E. Mulhill, 1981-12-17
  2. Vortex Processes and Solid Body Dynamics: The Dynamic Problems of Spacecrafts and Magnetic Levitation Systems (Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications) by B. Rabinovich, A.I. Lebedev, et all 1994-10-31
  3. Superconducting Levitation: Applications to Bearing & Magnetic Transportation by Francis C. Moon, 1994-06
  4. Magneto-Science: Magnetic Field Effects on Materials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer Series in Materials Science)
  5. Electromagnetic Levitation and Suspension Techniques by B. Jayawant, 1981-10-01
  6. Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems: Preliminary safety review of the Transrapid Maglev System by Unknown, 1991-01-01
  7. 21st Century Complete Guide to High-Speed and Maglev Trains, Magnetic Levitation Technology, High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT), FRA Development Program (CD-ROM) by U.S. Government, 2008-02-08
  8. Use of the Interstate Highway System right-of-way for magnetic levitation high speed transportation systems: hearing before the Subcommittee on Water Resources, ... session, February 26, September 28, 1988 by Transportation, and Infrastructure., . United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Subcommittee on Water Resources, 1988-01-01
  9. 2008 High-Speed and Maglev Trains, Magnetic Levitation Technology, High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT), FRA Development Program (CD-ROM) by U.S. Government, 2008-02-08
  10. Levitation: Superconductivity, Diamagnetism, Meissner Effect, Lenz's Law, Magnetic Levitation, Ionocraft, Flux Pumping, Halbach Array
  11. Multi-axis Nanopositioning using Magnetic Levitation: Instrument Development and Performance Evaluation by Shobhit Verma, 2010-04-02
  12. Rising Force: The Magic of Magnetic Levitation by James D. Livingston, 2011-05-01
  13. Magnetic Levitation and It's Application to Telemanipulation: Design, Implementation and Control of a Magnetic Levitation Device by Ehsan Shameli, 2009-04-15
  14. Magnetic Levitation

1. Magnetic Levitation - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
magnetic levitation, maglev, or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic fields.
Magnetic levitation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation search This article is about magnetic levitation. For trains based on this effect, see Maglev train Levitating pyrolytic carbon Magnetic levitation maglev , or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic fields . The electromagnetic force is used to counteract the effects of the gravitational force Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles (especially trains) via electromagnetic force. This method can be faster than wheeled mass transit systems, potentially reaching velocities comparable to turboprop and jet aircraft (900 km/h, 559 mph). The maximum recorded speed of a maglev train is 581 km/h (361 mph), achieved in Japan in 2003.

2. Magnetic Levitation - Science Is Fun - Contents
magnetic levitation information, photos and links. Includes the article What is a magnetic field? .
Magnetic Levitation - Science is Fun
Magnetic, diamagnetic and superconductor levitation topics and links As a child, I discovered I could levitate a ping pong ball on a stream of air from the output pipe of a vacuum cleaner. This is similar to optical levitation of a glass bead in a laser beam (pressure from photon recoil instead of an air stream). I hope you enjoy the many exciting ways to levitate objects.
News Items: Maglev train crash in Germany kills 23
There is an interesting article on Space Elevators in the September 2005 issue of Nuts and Volts magazine.
There is a good Magnetic Levitation project and circuit in the September 2003 issue of Nuts and Volts magazine. See the article in .pdf format at the Magnetic Levitation Kit (Guy Marsden) link below.
What is a magnetic field? Does a magnet slow time? (1-24-2006)

(An intuitive exploration of relativistic quantum magnetism. Don't let the big words scare you! Now over 40,000. visits!)
Levitating World Globe, a look inside


Tethered wrench levitation

Frog Levitation (University of Nijmegen, Amsterdam, Netherlands)
... How to build a magnetometer (NCEMO) Levitation by sound, light, water, and electrostatic pressures Ultrasonic Levitation in Air at 20 kHZ (Nihon U, Japan)

3. Magnetic Levitation Device Plans: Room-temperature Meissner-shield Maglev
magnetic levitation links. Also experiments by Bill Beaty. Part of Bill Beaty s extensive science site.



Magnetic Levitation cradle
Lifts a magnet from below
Based upon an electrically-produced Meissner-like effect Scroll down I'm a science hobbyist and occasional exhibit designer for science museums. The multi-coil device shown in the photo was part of a prototype "room-temperature superconductive table" which never made it to a museum. I thought I'd place it here so students and hobbyists could experiment with this strange maglev effect.
The device in the articles is not trivial to build, so I would recommend it mostly for ADVANCED HIGH-SCHOOL LEVEL AND ABOVE . If you've never built any electronic devices before, I wouldn't recommend the Meissner maglev cradle as your first project. I built mine using parts from a mail-order surplus store . Since you'll be using DIFFERENT surplus parts, my plans are only guidelines for experienced hobbyists rather than detailed instructions for a beginner. Experimentation will be required in order to get this device to work. For a much simpler project, check out " Simple maglev train ", which uses only permanent magnets, and the

4. Magnetic Levitation
magnetic levitation. Magnetic fields are actively excluded from superconductors (Meissner effect). If a small magnet is brought near a superconductor,
Magnetic Levitation
Magnetic fields are actively excluded from superconductors ( Meissner effect ). If a small magnet is brought near a superconductor, it will be repelled becaused induced supercurrents will produce mirror images of each pole. If a small permanent magnet is placed above a superconductor, it can be levitated by this repulsive force. The black ceramic material in the illustrations is a sample of the yttrium based superconductor. By tapping with a sharp instrument, the suspended magnet can be caused to oscillate or rotate. This motion is found to be damped, and will come to rest in a few seconds. Cube Movie 1 Cube Movie 2 Cylinder Movie Illustration of the damped motion ... Condensed Matter R Nave Go Back
Levitation Currents
The Meissner effect in superconductors like this black ceramic yttrium based superconductor acts to exclude magnetic fields from the material. Since the electrical resistance is zero, supercurrents are generated in the material to exclude the magnetic fields from a magnet brought near it. The currents which cancel the external field produce magnetic poles which mirror the poles of the permanent magnet, repelling them to provide the lift to levitate the magnet The levitation process is quite remarkable. Since the levitating currents in the superconductor meet no resistance, they can adjust almost instantly to maintain the levitation. The suspended magnet can be moved, put into oscillation, or even spun rapidly and the levitation currents will adjust to keep it in suspension.

5. Howstuffworks "How Maglev Trains Work"
magnetic levitation trains are becoming a popular transportation topic all around the globe. Learn about electromagnetic suspension, the most popular type RSS Make HowStuffWorks your homepage Get Newsletter Search HowStuffWorks and the web:
Engineering Machines and heavy equipment do the work that people can't. Learn about cranes, earth movers and other heavy equipment. Related Categories:
REFERENCE LINKS PRINT EMAIL How Maglev Trains Work by Kevin Bonsor
Inside This Article Introduction to How Maglev Trains Work The Maglev Track Electrodynamic Suspension (EDS) Maglev Technology In Use Lots More Information ... articles If you've been to an airport lately, you've probably noticed that air travel is becoming more and more congested. Despite frequent delays, airplanes still provide the fastest way to travel hundreds or thousands of miles. Passenger air travel revolutionized the transportation industry in the last century, letting people traverse great distances in a matter of hours instead of days or weeks.
Photo courtesy Railway Technical Research Institute
Maglev trains can travel at speeds of up to 310 mph (500 kph).
The only alternatives to airplanes feet, cars, buses, boats and conventional trains are just too slow for today's fast-paced society. However, there is a new form of transportation that could revolutionize transportation of the 21st century the way airplanes did in the 20th century.

6. Levitron -- Spin Stabilized Magnetic Levitation
Spin stabilized magnetic levitation is a macroscopic analog of magnetic gradient traps used to confine particles with a quantum magnetic moment.

Read the paper here.
Spin stabilized magnetic levitation
Martin D. Simon, UCLA Department of Physics,
Lee O. Heflinger, Torrance CA, and S. L. Ridgway, Santa Monica CA
Published in the American Journal of Physics, April 1997
The stability of the Levitron cannot be explained if the top's axis has a fixed direction in space. Stability against flipping is not enough. Gyroscopic precession around the local magnetic field direction is necessary. An analysis and numerical integration of the equations of motion for an experimental stemless top that includes gyroscopic precession around the local magnetic field lines predict that the top will be supported stably up to spin speeds of about 3,065 rpm. An upper spin limit of 2779 rpm for this top is observed experimentally and explained as an adiabatic condition. Spin stabilized magnetic levitation is a macroscopic analog of magnetic gradient traps used to confine particles with a quantum magnetic moment. Read the paper here.

The overheating problem would be even worse if we used a 12v solenoid with its smaller resisitance, or if we tried to levitate a larger bar magnet.



Hall-effect field sensor
Here's the schematic of the device depicted in the photo. Each of the ten coil-assemblies has its own copy of the above circuit. The SS41 is a Microswitch Hall Effect magnetic field sensor IC that I found in Surplus catalog for $.50 each. Any similar hall IC should work, as long as it is fairly sensitive and is magnetically bipolar. All Electronics currently has one for $.50, HESW-5, but it is a surface-mount package with tiny, hard-to-solder leads. The professional supplier for hall-effect devices is Allegro Micro . They probably have a minimum $$ for mail order though. Here are some common Hall effect magnetic field sensors. Also, page down to here.
Power Supply
The power supply is "bipolar", meaning that you need TWO supplies, one pos and one neg. The coils I used needed 24 volts DC each, so my supply was +-24 (or 48 v with a center common). I could run it for short periods using eight 9v batteries ( +- 36 v). If you use 12 volt coils, you'll be able to use a more common 12V dc supply. Note for experimenters: if you always use the SAME polarity of magnet, you could get rid of one power supply, and the entire circuit becomes simple: just drive the coil with a Darlington transistor switched by the Hall chip and a pullup resistor. The magleve cradle could be built this way if the bar magnet was always inserted in the same direction (but then you could never use this as a maglev train system.)

8. United Nuclear - Neodymium Magnets
You can perform magnetic levitation experiments with Bismuth using our small, high power Neodymium magnets. Depending on the size of the magnets and the
"We specialize in small orders"
Neodymium Magnets
The most powerful magnets on Earth
All our magnets are high grade Neodymium, grade N45 or higher. They are much, much stronger than
common Neodymium magnets (N28, N35, N38, or N45) on the market today.
The magnets listed below are very powerful, much more powerful than magnets most people have seen, and need to be handled with proper care. The magnetic fields from these magnets can affect each other from more than 12 inches away. Please note that these magnets are fragile. Even though they are coated with a tough protective nickel plating, do not allow them to snap together with their full force or they may chip, break, and possibly send small pieces of metal flying on impact. Our larger magnets can easily bruise fingers and
even break finger bones as they attempt to connect together. Always wear protective eyewear or safety goggles when handling the magnets. Keep magnets away from any magnetic based storage devices such as desktop or laptop computers, hard drives, floppy disks, cassette tapes, VHS tapes, or credit cards. A distance of at least 12" should be kept between magnets and these items at all times. Keep them away from computer monitors, VCR'S and TV's, non-electronic wrist watches etc. If you or someone in your household has a PACEMAKER or another electronic surgical implant, don't even think of ordering these items. Neodymium magnets are not suitable for children to play with

9. Colossal Magnetic Levitation Wind Turbine Proposed : TreeHugger
magnetic levitation is a very efficient method of capturing wind energy. The blades of the turbine are suspended on a cushion of air, and the energy is
Colossal Magnetic Levitation Wind Turbine Proposed
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Latest TH Radio
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10. Magnetic Levitation
While that sounds entertaining, if not particularly practical, the applications of magnetic levitation could have huge impact on industries that are,
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Magnetic Levitation
[c] Broadcast Date: Tues 31 August 2004
Summary: Various industries will benefit from maglev Press Release
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Narrowband Transcript Help Synopsis At the UK's University of Nottingham physicists are levitating water! While that sounds entertaining, if not particularly practical, the applications of Magnetic Levitation could have huge impact on industries that are, literally, worlds apart. Plant biologists working in space exploration are keen to develop plants for use as food on long voyages and with a view to being able to grow them in reduced gravity. Back down to earth and engineers in the mining industry are constantly looking for new ways to access rare minerals. For both groups the answer may lie with the University of Nottingham's research into Magnetic Levitation. Even materials normally regarded as non magnetic, such as water, plastic or oils, will become weakly magnetised in a powerful magnetic field. By varying this field the magnetic force can be powerful enough to counteract earth's gravity, making it possible to conduct zero gravity experiments without the cost of going into space, or to "float" minerals according to their different densities giving easier access to increasingly rare precious materials.

11. YouTube - Broadcast Yourself.
Tags maglev supermagnets magnet neodymium neo magnetic levitation Tags science amasci physics maglev magnetic levitation neodymium supermagnets

12. Magnetic Levitation Haptic Interfaces - Projects - Microdynamic Systems Laborato
The magnetic levitation approach for haptic interface devices is distinctively different from actuated linkage or cable devices.
Microdynamic Systems Laboratory
The Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University MSL Home Projects
Magnetic Levitation Haptic Interfaces
(This project is no longer active, and has been superseded by other projects) Peter J. Berkelman and Ralph L. Hollis
Using the Magnetic Levitation Haptic Interaction System
  • We have developed a haptic interface device based on Lorentz force magnetic levitation. The user grasps a levitated tool handle to interact with computed environments. The dynamics of the handle are controlled so that the user feels the motion, shape, resistance, and surface texture of simulated objects.
The magnetic levitation approach for haptic interface devices is distinctively different from actuated linkage or cable devices. Advantages of magnetic levitation for haptic interaction are:
  • 6-DOF motion with one moving part Noncontact actuation and sensing High control bandwidths Position resolution and sensitivity
Number A Productions . This page last updated on February 10, 2006.

13. Magnetic_Levitation
magnetic levitation Mk I 2004 I am working on potential exhibits for the Gravity Discovery . The magnetic levitation demonstrated by Sylvia at the GDS. levitation.htm
Magnetism topics on this page include: Magnetic Levitation Mk I Magnetic Levitation Mk II Magnetic Levitation of a coil Levitation with magnetic induction ... Levitron Magnetic levitation Mk I
I am working on potential exhibits for the Gravity Discovery Centre in Gingin, Western Australia, as part of an 'antigravity' display. The GDC is the public interface for the Australian International Gravitational Observatory which is part of a worldwide effort to detect elusive gravity waves. (click to enlarge) It works! (After a week of adjusting and testing) A NIB magnet with some metal pipe is supported motionless, 1 inch below the coil. "..look Ma, no hands.."
The circuit uses two linear Hall effect devices at either end of an electromagnet. The circuit senses a difference in the two outputs which should cancel regardless if the coil is switched on or off. An approaching magnet disturbs this balance and this this output is fed to a PWM (pulse width modulated) supply for the MOSFET output to the coil. Conditions are set so that there is an equilibrium is setup with the weight of the magnet and the electromagnet at a certain point where it will hover. Hmmm.. magnetism opposing gravity - sounds like 'antigravity' to me...
(click to enlarge) The left photo shows the coil and earlier circuit board. The other two are of the neat side and the not-so-neat side. Alright, so I don't know how to do PCB's.

14. Magnetic Levitation:
Research into magnetic levitation and microgravity at the University of Nottingham.
Magnetic Levitation:
Select the link below to enter the university of Nottingham magnetic levitation website.
University of Nottingham Magnetic Levitation Facility University of Nottingham School of Physics and Astronomy
Want your own free site like this? Try
New! What is Pagii? addthis_url = location.href; addthis_title = document.title; addthis_pub = 'webs';

15. Magnetic Levitation Haptic Interfaces
You are being sent to the new magnetic levitation Haptic Interfaces web site at http//
You are being sent to the new Magnetic Levitation Haptic Interfaces web site at

16. Inductrak
Post believes Inductrack offers NASA the potential for a far less expensive technology for magnetic levitation launchers than approaches using

17. Maglev Trains: Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) For Transportation
In the United States, scientists James R. Powell and Gordan T. Danby patented the first design for magnetic levitation trains in 1969.
Select a category... Apparel Freight Railroads - North America Freight Railroads - World Model Railroad Live Steam Clubs - North America Model Railroad Live Steam Clubs - World Model Railroad Manufacturers - Rolling Stock Model Railroad Manufacturers - Structures Model Railroad Retail - Hobby Shops News Releases Operation Lifesaver Rail Safety Program Private Railcars RailCams (Live Trackside Video) Rails-to-Trails Steam Locomotives Steam Specials Calendar Train GIFs Training Programs Unions Magnetic Levitation
for Transportation Researched and Written By Christopher Muller
January 23, 1998
"We may perhaps learn to deprive large masses of their gravity and give them absolute levity, for the sake of easy transport."
- Benjamin Franklin
Note: This document was published in January 1998 as a 10th grade research paper. This document may be linked to or cited in original research, but may not be copied in whole or in part via print or electronic media. For links to other maglev resources, please see The need for fast and reliable transportation is increasing throughout the world. High-speed rail has been the solution for many countries. Trains are fast, comfortable, and energy-efficient. The United States is years behind European countries in high-speed rail research and development. Meanwhile, in Germany and Japan, magnetic levitation may be an even better solution.

18. ART TEC - Magnetic Levitation Kit
This simple electronic kit uses magnetic levitation to suspend small objects up to about 1/2 ounce (15 Grams) or so in mid air.
home Guy Marsden Kits start at $56.00 DEFY GRAVITY! ENHANCE LEVITY! T his simple electronic kit uses magnetic levitation to suspend small objects up to about 1/2 ounce (15 Grams) or so in mid air. This is an ideal Science Project for ages 12 and up! Detailed 6 page instructions include theory and clear images. See below to order either the complete kit of parts, or fully assembled and tested versions. The air gap is about 3/8". The electromagnet dynamically controls the position of the suspended rare earth magnet(s) attached to the levitated object. Feedback is provided by a linear Hall Effect sensor mounted under the electromagnet. Once calibrated properly, suspended objects are stable after settling. NOTE!

19. Magnetic Levitation
Diamagnetic levitation occurs by bringing a diamagnetic material in close proximity to material that produces a magnetic field.
Up Diamagnetism A diamagnetic substance is one whose atoms have no permanent magnetic dipole moment. When an external magnetic field is applied to a diamagnetic substance such as bismuth or silver a weak magnetic dipole moment is induced in the direction opposite the applied field. All materials are actually diamagnetic, in that a weak repulsive force is generated by in a magnetic field by the current of the orbiting electron. Some materials, however, have stronger paramagnetic qualities that overcome their natural diamagnetic qualities. These paramagnetic materials, such as iron and nickel, have unpaired electrons. Some Diamagnetic Elements
  • Bismuth Mercury Silver Carbon Lead Copper
Some Ferromagnetic Elements
  • Iron Nickel Cobalt G adolinium Dysprosium
Some Paramagnetic Elements
  • Uranium Platinum Aluminum Sodium Oxygen
Diamagnetic Levitation Diamagnetic Levitation occurs by bringing a diamagnetic material in close proximity to material that produces a magnetic field. The diamagnetic material will repel the material producing the magnetic field. Generally, however, this repulsive force is not strong enough to overcome the force of gravity on the Earth's surface. To cause diamagnetic levitation, both the diamagnetic material and magnetic material must produce a combined repulsive force to overcome the force of gravity. There are a number of ways to achieve this: Placing Diamagnetic Material in Strong Electromagnetic Fields Modern Electromagnets are capable of producing extremely strong magnetic fields. These electromagnets have been used to levitate many diamagnetic materials including weakly diamagnetic materials such as organic matter. A popular educational demonstration involves the placement of small frogs into a strong static electromagnetic field. The frog, being composed of primarily water, acts as a weak diamagnet and is levitated.

20. Levitation Melting
For more detail see magnetic levitation of liquid metals , Journal of Fluid Mechanics 117, pages 2743, by A. J. Mestel. Click here to return to Jonathan
An aluminium cube is being simultaneously levitated and melted by the magnetic field generated by a high frequency, alternating current, passed through the water-cooled copper wires. As it melts, the metal adopts a pear shape, and vigorous motion is driven within it. The white lining is added to aid visbility. (Photograph taken at MADYLAM laboratories, Grenoble, France) For more detail see "Magnetic levitation of liquid metals", Journal of Fluid Mechanics , pages 27-43, by A. J. Mestel Click here to return to Jonathan Mestel's home page

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