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41. "Introduction To Probability" In Adobe Portable Document Format (pdf)
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/teaching_aids/books_articles/probability_book/p
 INTRODUCTION TO PROBABILITY Charles M. Grinstead Swarthmore College J. Laurie Snell Dartmouth College

42. Perplexus.info :: Logic Puzzles, Brainteasers, Riddles And Math Tricks
A forum and collection of brain teasers, logic problems, math problems, paradoxes, science games, probability, riddles, and geometric shapes. The puzzles are searchable and categorized, most have solutions.
http://perplexus.info/
 All about flooble fun stuff Get a free chatterbox ... Avatars perplexus dot info Home Welcome to perplexus.info , flooble's perplexing puzzle portal. Here, we collect all sorts of puzzles, from simple logic questions and word tricks to in-depth math problems like probability and geometry. Click around and see if your brain is up to the task! If you're new here, make sure you sign up so that you can leave comments and submit your own problems! Categories All Problem Categories Latest: The reversed numbers (in Just Math Both a and b are four-digit numbers and one is obtained from the other by reversing the digits. Determine them, knowing that 2 * (a + b) = 5 * (b - 1) Show your reasoning. No Solution Yet, 6 Comments Submitted on 2005-09-16 by pcbouhid Bonus: A bizarre sequence (in Sequences Rating: 3.50 Here's a sequence: What numbers go into the blanks, and what is the rule for the sequence? Solution Posted, 11 Comments Submitted on 2003-07-28 by Lewis The Year of Four Emperors (in Cryptography Posted on 2005-09-16 by Lisa (No Solution Yet, 7 Comments)

43. Welcome To Probability By Surprise !
Contains class notes and applets for teaching an introductory probability class to engineers.
http://www-stat.stanford.edu/~susan/surprise/
Visualizing Probabilities - Applets
Beware, the current versions are very sensitive to which browsers you use, see the instructions.
The Class Notes
This contains all the class notes for the Introduction to Probability class currently taught at Stanford using these, and other web-resources.
Acknowledgements
This work was made possible by a grant from NSF-DUE and the support of Cornell University and the statistics department at Stanford. Collaborators who have written applets include: Brigitte Charnomordic, Marc Coram, Susan Holmes, Balasubramanuan Narasimhan, Hua Tang, Ying Taur, Jing Zhi, Jeff Zhu. Consultants who have helped in other ways include Bob Connelly, Persi Diaconis, Marc Huber and Barbara Tversky.
Chosen as a Selected Web Resource

by the National Council of Teachers

of Mathematics
Illuminations Project

 44. Journal Of Applied Probability, Volume 42, No. 2 For over four decades, the Journal of Applied probability has provided a forum for original research and reviews in applied probability.http://projecteuclid.org/Dienst/UI/1.0/Journal?authority=euclid.jap

45. Dale Schuurmans' University Of Waterloo Page
Computational learning, complex probability modelling.
http://www.lpaig.uwaterloo.ca:80/~dale/
Dale Schuurmans
Associate Professor 2002-2003
Assistant Professor 1998-2002
School of Computer Science
University of Waterloo
I've moved!
I am now at: Department of Computing Science
Unversity of Alberta

Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E8
My new contact information is: www.cs.ualberta.ca/~dale dale@cs.ualberta.ca Office: Ath 409 (Athabasca Hall), (780) 492-4806, fax (780) 492-1071 Some related links are: Alberta Ingenuity Center for Machine Learning Research

46. Positive Probability Ltd
Data processing for Spectroscopy, Spectrometry and Chromatography.
http://www.positiveprobability.com
Interested in advanced data processing? You have arrived at the PPL website. See what the advanced data reconstruction program can do for you.
Correct Baselines
Place your cursor over this diagram of Flourescence DNA sequencing data to see Baseline corrected data.
Place your cursor over this diagram of Proton NMR data to see what data reconstruction can do.
Deconvolve Peaks
Place your cursor over this diagram of Gradient LC data to see what deconvolution can do.
Deisotope MS Data
Place your cursor over this diagram of multi-charge data to see what deisotoping can do.
Convert Electrospray Mass Spectra to Zero-charge Spectra
ESIMS data of horse heart myoglobin. zero-charge deconvolution. Place your cursor over this diagram of a chemically modified protein to see what charge deconvolution can do. PPL's ReSpect algorithm is used in ProteinTrawler(TM) , a cross-platform LC/MS and LC/MS/MS tool produced by PPL's American partner BioAnalyte Inc.

47. Libbpfl - Bayesian Probability Filtering Library
A general purpose library for Bayesian filtering. C++, LGPL license
http://libbpfl.sourceforge.net
Current Version 0.2.0beta
Main Project Page Download CVS ... Documentation The Bayesian Probability Filtering Library ( BPFL ) is a C++ library library intended for creation of Bayesian Filtering Programs. If you don't know what Bayesian Filters are, please read the documentation top page. This library is still in it's very early stages, but it is functional. It is currently being used to make a simple mail filter, which will be released soon. Although there are currently at least three mail filters using Bayesian filtering, the filter is being written as an example of how to use the library. For News, CVS access and release info, please see the Sourceforge Project Page Revision: 1.5 - Date: 2003/03/31 20:37:33 libbpfl is free software.
It is protected under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License.

48. Normal Distribution Applets
probability and Quantile Applets. I ve created JAVA code for handling most of the probability Applet. The first applet below calculates areas under the
http://www-stat.stanford.edu/~naras/jsm/FindProbability.html
Probability and Quantile Applets
I've created JAVA code for handling most of the routine things with common distributions, such as computing probabilities, quantiles, and generating random variates. I have written most of these things as Literate Programs in Noweb and I will make them available to the public very soon. Although, the same thing is easily done for all the implemented distributions, only two applets that can be used to calculate probabilities under the normal curve and quantiles of normal distribution are presented.
Probability Applet
The first applet below calculates areas under the standard normal density curves. You are presented with two fields and three buttons on top of a normal density curve. The buttons allow you to calculate areas to the left or to the right or between.
• For areas to the left, use the left data entry field. For areas to the right, use the right data entry field. For areas between two points, use both fields.
The interface is quite forgiving. If you mess up, it takes you right to the field where you have to type.
Quantile Applet
The second applet calculates quantiles of the normal distribution. You can choose any mean and any standard deviation. The applet will return the requested quantile.

49. Math Forum: Ask Dr. Math FAQ: Probability
An introduction to probability. Because each probability is a fraction of the sample space, the sum of the probabilities of all the possible outcomes
http://mathforum.org/dr.math/faq/faq.prob.intro.html
I ntroduction to P robability
Dr. Math FAQ
Classic Problems Formulas Search Dr. Math ... Dr. Math Home
For a review of concepts, see Permutations and Combinations. The study of probability helps us figure out the likelihood of something happening. For instance, when you roll a pair of dice, you might ask how likely you are to roll a seven. In math, we call the "something happening" an "event." The probability of the occurrence of an event can be expressed as a fraction or a decimal from to 1. Events that are unlikely will have a probability near 0, and events that are likely to happen have probabilities near 1.* In any probability problem, it is very important to identify all the different outcomes that could occur. For instance, in the question about the dice, you must figure out all the different ways the dice could land, and all the different ways you could roll a seven. * Note that when you're dealing with an infinite number of possible events, an event that could conceivably happen might have probability zero. Consider the example of picking a random number between 1 and 10 - what is the probability that you'll pick 5.0724? It's zero, but it could happen.

50. Hector Parr's Essays: Probability
Examines various definitions of probability, and some paradoxes and perplexities.
http://www.c-parr.freeserve.co.uk/hcp/prob.htm
HOME TREATISE:
Quantum

Nodal Theory
ROMALDKIRK:
Village

Reservoirs

ESSAYS: COSMOLOGY

Infinity

Universe

Dark Matter

ESSAYS: PHILOSOPHY
Free Will
Representation Conditionals Postscript ESSAYS: ORGAN MUSIC Practising British Organs Hymn Playing Music Lovers QUIZ QUESTIONS Monthly Quiz Quiz Archive SERVICES Book Reviews
Hector C. Parr
This essay has been extended, and is now incorporated in the author's new book
Quantum Physics: The Nodal Theory

51. Math Forum: Probability And Statistics
The best Internet resources for probability and statistics classroom materials, software, Internet projects, and public forums for discussion.
http://mathforum.org/probstat/probstat.html
Probability and Statistics
Back to Math by Subject
Math by Subject

K12 Topics
algebra
arithmetic
calculus
discrete math
geometry
pre-calculus
prob/stat
Advanced Topics analysis calculus diff. equations game theory discrete math geometry (coll.) geometry (adv.) linear algebra modern algebra num. analysis
Probability and Statistics
Home The Math Library Quick Reference Search ... Help http://mathforum.org/

52. Welcome To Probability One Technologies
Developer of Mac software including UtilityDog, a mulitpurpose file utility and disk browser distributed as shareware.
http://www.probabilityone.com
Welcome to Probability One Technologies LLC

53. Annals Of Probability
The Annals of probability publishes research papers in modern probability theory, its relations to other areas of mathematics, and its applications in the
http://www.imstat.org/aop/
Editorial Board Editorial Policy Contacts May 2005 ... Other IMS Journals
Annals of Probability
The Annals of Probability publishes research papers in modern probability theory, its relations to other areas of mathematics, and its applications in the physical and biological sciences. Emphasis is on importance, interest, and originality - formal novelty and correctness are not sufficient for publication. The Annals will also publish authoritative review papers and surveys of areas in vigorous development.
Editors
Steven Lalley Associate Editors Andrew Barbour Wenbo Li Richard Bass Russell Lyons ... Jeffrey Steif Frank den Hollander Balint Toth Kurt Johansson Ofer Zeitouni Wilfrid Kendall ... Joel Zinn Editorial Assistant Judy Lalley Managing Editor Michael Phelan Production Editor Patrick Kelly Past Editors web site contact: imswebmaster@imstat.org

54. Annals Of Applied Probability
The Annals of Applied probability aims to publish research of the highest quality reflecting the varied facets of contemporary Applied probability.
http://www.imstat.org/aap/
Editorial Board Editorial Policy Contacts Electronic Access ... Other IMS Journals
Annals of Applied Probability
The Annals of Applied Probability aims to publish research of the highest quality reflecting the varied facets of contemporary Applied Probability. Primary emphasis is placed on importance and originality.
Editors
Robert Adler Associate Editors Maury Bramson Thomas Mikosch Paul Dupuis Leonid Mytnik ... Jason Schweinsberg Yuri Kabanov Martin Schweizer Ravindran Kannan Timo Seppalainen Claudia Kluppelberg ... Ofer Zeitouni Managing Editor Michael Phelan Production Editor Patrick Kelly Past Editors Past Editors from previous years web site contact: imswebmaster@imstat.org

55. Calculus And Probability
The mathematics needed to do probability and statistics with continuous It also supplements any previous study you may have made of probability and
http://www.hofstra.edu/~matscw/cprob/cprobintro.html
A Complete Text Resource on the World Wide Web by Stefan Waner and Steven R. Costenoble
Table of Contents 1. Continuous Random Variables and Histograms Exercises 2. Probability Density Functions: Uniform, Exponential, Normal, and Beta Exercises 3. Mean, Median, Variance and Standard Deviation Exercises 4. You're the Expert Creating a Family Trust Back to Main Page Introduction Y ou are a financial planning consultant at a neighborhood bank. A 22-year-old client asks you the following question: "I would like to set up my own insurance policy by opening a trust account into which I can make monthly payments starting now, so that upon my death or my ninety-fifth birthday - whichever comes sooner - the trust can be expected to be worth \$500,000. How much should I invest each month?" Assuming a 5% rate of return on investments, how should you respond? To answer the question on the previous page, we must know something about the probability of the client's dying at various ages. There are so many possible ages to consider (particularly since we should consider the possibilities month by month) that it would be easier to treat his age at death as a continuous variable, one that can take on any real value (between 22 and 95 in this case). The mathematics needed to do probability and statistics with continuous variables is calculus. The material on statistics in this resource will be readily accessible to you if you are familar with derivatives and integrals (through Chapter 6 of

56. Untitled Document
Introduction to probability by Charles M. Grinstead and J. Laurie Snell in PDF. Published by the AMS. The site also contains additional teaching resources.
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/teaching_aids/books_articles/probability_book/b
 This introductory probability book, published by the American Mathematical Society, is available from AMS bookshop . It has, since publication, also been freely available here in pdf format. We are pleased that this has made our book more widely available. Thanks to the efforts of our colleague Peter Doyle , we are pleased to announce that our book has now been made freely redistributable under the terms of the GNU General Public License Free Software Foundation here more details about what can and cannot be done under this license. Of course we hope that the GNU version will become better than the present published version. The current GNU version is, available here , in pdf format. A bundle of source files can be found here and an index for the material related to the GNU book can be found here. For those using the published version of our book in class, we will continue to provide the pdf version mentioned above that will agree, accept for minor corrections, with the published version. We hope that having our book under the GNU contract will enrich our book and encourage others to make use of material from our book in their own writing. We will keep a list of contributions to the GNU version of the book website and will welcome additional contributions.

57. Probability - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
The general idea of probability is often divided into two related concepts. Aleatory probability, which represents the likelihood of future events whose
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability
Probability
The word probability derives from the Latin probare (to prove, or to test). Informally, probable is one of several words applied to uncertain events or knowledge, being more or less interchangeable with likely risky hazardous uncertain , and doubtful , depending on the context. Chance odds , and bet are other words expressing similar notions. As with the theory of mechanics which assigns precise definitions to such everyday terms as work and force , so the theory of probability attempts to quantify the notion of probable
Contents

58. Probability Theory - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
Two crucial concepts in the theory of probability are those of a random variable and of The modern measuretheoretic foundation of probability theory,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability_theory
Probability theory
Probability theory is the mathematical study of probability Mathematicians think of probabilities as numbers in the interval from to 1 assigned to "events" whose occurrence or failure to occur is random. Probabilities P E are assigned to events E according to the probability axioms The probability that an event E occurs given the known occurrence of an event F is the conditional probability of E given F ; its numerical value is (as long as P F is nonzero). If the conditional probability of E given F is the same as the ("unconditional") probability of E , then E and F are said to be independent events. That this relation between E and F is symmetric may be seen more readily by realizing that it is the same as saying Two crucial concepts in the theory of probability are those of a random variable and of the probability distribution of a random variable; see those articles for more information.
edit
A somewhat more abstract view of probability
"Pure" mathematicians usually take probability theory to be the study of probability spaces and random variables â an approach introduced by Kolmogorov in the . A probability space is a triple (Î©

59. Exotic Probability Theories And Quantum Mechanics References
Complex and negative probabilities and their relation to quantum mechanics
http://physics.bu.edu/~youssef/quantum/quantum_refs.html
Exotic Probability Theories and Quantum Mechanics: References
Dear Friends, I thought that it might be useful to collect references relevant to exotic probability theories and their relation to quantum mechanics. If you see something missing, please let me know. Regards, Saul Youssef
• A.V. Belinskii, How could you measure a negative probability? , JETP letters, 59, 301 (1994).
• D.J.Miller, Realism and Time Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics , Phys. Lett. A 1996.
• Ariel Caticha, Consistency and Linearity in Quantum Theory , Phys.Rev. A57, 1572 (1998).
• Ariel Caticha, Consistency, Amplitudes and Probabilities in Quantum Theory , preprint, 1998.
• Paul Dirac, On the Analogy Between Classical and Quantum Mechanics, Reviews of Modern Physics, 17, 195, (1945)
• Richard Feynman, The Concept of Probability Theory in Quantum Mechanics , in the Second Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability Theory, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 1950.
• Richard Feynman, Negative Probabilities , in Quantum Implications , eds B.J. Hiley and F.David Peat (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987).
• 60. Oxford Journals | Mathematics & Physical Sciences | Law, Probability And Risk
Web site for Law, probability and Risk. For faster access to Law, probability and Risk from these locations use this URL
http://lpr.oxfordjournals.org/
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Volume 4 Issue 1-2 March 2005
View table of contents Browse the Archive The journal publishes papers that deal with topics on the interface of law and probabilistic reasoning. These are interpreted broadly to include aspects relevant to the interpretation of scientific evidence, the assessment of uncertainty and the assessment of risk. The readership is primarily academic lawyers, mathematicians, statisticians and social scientists with interests in quantitative reasoning.
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